1. Why was the Ptolemaic system accepted as an explanation of celestial motion for over a thousand years? What did it explain? What system challenged the idea that Earth was the center of the universe? The Ptolemaic system says that the Earth is the center of the universe. Everything else surrounded the Earth. The Copernican system challenged the belief that Earth was the center of the universe. The major difference between the Ptolemaic and Copernican universes is that the Copernican universe puts the Sun at the center rather than the Earth. Both systems both assumed that all orbits are circular though.
2. What were Tycho Brahe’s principal contributions to science? How did he try to resolve the question of the structure of the universe? Brahe’s scientific career fell upon his hands when he discovered a new star in the sky. His discovery gained him the access to funds and equipment which aided in his contributions we see today. He developed an aiming scope, a quadrant, allowing him to see exactly where planets were and the rotating spheres the planets moved in. His brilliant use of tools allowed him to cease all speculation about the structure of the universe.
3. What was Kepler’s role in interpreting Tycho Brahe’s data? The work of Brahe and Kepler, his assistant who succeeded him, proved that the Ptolemaic and Copernican systems are both inadmissible. Kepler took Brahe’s data and created three mathematical statements about the solar system. Brahe’s work led Kepler to unreveal that Earth is not at the center of the universe and that planetary orbits are not circular, which is called Kepler’s Law.
4. How did Galileo apply the scientific method to his study of falling objects? Galileo developed the problem/question: Do heavier objects fall faster than lighter objects. This inquiry was based on Aristotle’s research which says yes to that question. Galileo’s hypothesis became that objects of different weights fall at the same rate. Next, would be conducting an experiment to test his idea. The experiment called for dropping several objects off the Tower of Pisa. His hypothesis proved successful in that every object dropped met the surface at the same rate.
5. A hockey player hits a puck at one end of an empty skating rink. The puck travels across the ice in a straight line until it is stopped by the goal at the other end. Explain how each of Newton’s laws of motion applies to this situation. Newton’s first law, often called the law of inertia, says that a moving object will continue moving in a straight line at a constant speed, and a stationary object will remain at rest unless pushed. This means that all objects resist changes in their state of motion. In the absence of an unbalanced force, an object in motion (the hockey puck) will maintain this state of motion. Newton’s second law says the acceleration produced on a body by a force is proportional to the magnitude of the force and inversely proportional to the mass of the object. In simpler terms, this means the greater the force, the greater the acceleration; but the more massive the object being acted on by a given force, the smaller the acceleration. Newton’s third law says that or every action there is an opposite reaction. That is to say that whenever an object pushes another object it gets pushed back in the opposite direction equally hard.
6. According to Newton, what are the two kinds of motion in the universe? How did this view differ from those of previous scholars? Newton two different kinds of motion uniform motion and force. This argument was made after observing objects being swung around above the head and set off in a straight line when let go. This simple observation led Newton to recognize two different kinds of motion. An object is in uniform motion if it travels in a straight line at constant speed. All other motions are called acceleration. Accelerations can involve changes of speed, changes of direction, or both. Scholars felt if the object is perfectly round will continue moving unless interfered.
7. Why gravity is called a universal force? What is the difference between g and G? Newton’s law of universal gravitation says between any two objects in the universe there is an attractive force (gravity) that is proportional to the masses of the objects and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. In other words, the more massive two objects are, the greater the force between them will be, and the farther apart they are, the less the force will be. Force is something that produces a change in the state of motion of an object. With that being said, gravity is everywhere in our universe, so it become a gravitational force between objects. Where G is the universal gravitational constant that applies to any two masses anywhere in the universe, g applies only to Earth’s surface. It (constant g) also expresses the number of two masses of two objects and their separation.
8. What similarities did Newton see between the Moon and an apple? Newton saws similarities between the Moon and an apple in the relationship of gravity and force. He questioned why gravity didn’t the cause the Moon to subject to falling as the apple fell if they were held by the same gravitational force. He realized that the net force and acceleration for both were toward the center of the Earth.
9. What is the difference between weight and mass? Weight is a measure of the gravitational pull on an object. No gravity equals no weight. Mass, on the other hand, is constant. No matter where you are, you always have the same mass. The more mass you have, the more gravity will attract that mass. And you’ll have more weight, assuming that there is some gravity.
10. How does velocity differ from speed? What are the quantities that involve both speed and direction called? Speed is the distance the object travels divided by the time it takes to travel that distance whereas velocity is the distance the object travels divided by the time it takes to travel that distance, including the direction of travel. Velocity gives both speed and direction of an object. While speed is a scalar quantity, velocity is a vector quantity, and requires direction and bearing in order to be valid.