Understand and meet the nutritional requirements of individuals with dementia Outcome 1 Understand the nutritional needs that are unique to individuals with dementia 1 Descride how congnitive, functional and emotional changes asspociated with dementia can affect eating, drinking and nutrition. Cognitive- People with dementia some times struggles to reconise food and drink, which is sometimes when they do not eat any food or drink but down in front of them or do not like what they see or food thier not used to. This is because of the damage the has be caused in the brain. If that person has a problem with their sight and can not see what their are eating or drinking ensure their have the correct glasses on if their wear them. It may be the need to be encouraged to eat as it maybe their are hungry but unsure what to do. A person with dementia my lack concentration so their may not be able to concentrate or focus on the mael until it is finished. But do not assume that aperson has finished thier meal just because they have stopped eating. Giving finger food or smaller portions can help with eating. If you are helping someone to eat do not allow the process go on to long as the food may become cold or the person may lose interest.
Functional- Co-ordination – A person with dementia may have problems with picking up or handle cutlery, or a glass. Has problems with eating, swallowing or chewing for , forget to open their mouths and have to be reminded to do so. Other conditions could be co ordination. Because they are struggling or having difficulties their are embrassed so avoid meals. To help people with dementia chop up their food small so their can use a spoon, if someone is having difficulty getting for to their mouth guide their hand, tryto give finger food as when co -ordination becomes difficult its easier food to eat, allow that person to sit where their comfortable, speak to an occupational therapist to find out what aids can be used to help. Functional- Chewing and swallowing- A person with dementia may have lost the sence of how to chew or swallow food. Pick foods that are not hard to to chew or swallow. You may have to remind that person who to put food or drink into they mouth.
Chec that there mouth or teeth or not sore or if the have dentures that there fit well, good oral hygiene is important. Poeple with dementia tense to tire of eating so allow them to eat soft, moist foods that do moy need a lot of chewing. If someone is having difficulties swallowing refer to a speech therapist this normally happens to so people as their dementia gets worse. Ensure that person is a wake or more alert as tireness can stop thatt person from eating. ensure their aare sitting up right or in a good position if in bed, before offering food or drink. Ask for aids to help with eating or drinking.
Emotional- This is where a person’s emotion is confusing to an individual as their may not understand that there is a problem, but to others because of there behavior changes know that there is a problem. This can cause stress to that person with dementia.
2 Expain how poor nutrition can contribute to an individual’s experience of dementia A person with dementia may have poor appetite, cognitive impairment, physical disabilities or sensory disabilities, because of this they may have a problem with eating and drinking. Even through people who have dementia sometimes have problems with eating and drinking, when there is a problem that is normaly an individual thing to that person. We should look for an solutions which is just for that person and suit that person’s needs, culture, beliefs and life history. It is important that we try to keep that person healthy by encouraging that person to eat and drink, by looking at different ways and techniques.
If a person will not eat this could lead to infections, weight loss, reduced muscle and fatigue. A person who has not drinking will become dehydrated this could because they are unable to communicate, forget to drink or unable to recongnise their are thirty. Because of not drinking could lead to headaches, increased confusion, constipation or urinary tract infection. Its imporatant that a person with dementia has a healthy well balanced diet. With someone in later stage dementia in is important to make sure they have the correct nutrition and by seeking advice from a dietitian can help to maintain thay person well being.
3 Outline how other health and emotional conditions may affect the nutritional needs of an individuals with dementia. Depression- Because some one has lost their appetite could be a sign of depression and this is a common with people with dementia. There are treaments which could help with depression which are medication or other therapies. Speak to their GP or nurse for guidance. Communication- A person with demnetia has a problem with identifying that their are hungry or do not like the food that they have been give. They may refuse to eat or hold the food in their mouth. By given a person with dementia choice of what their would like to eat, use prompts or pictures could help. Pain- The person could be in pain and find eating to diffcult or uncomfortable. Ask them if their mouth is sore or their could have a problem with their dentures or their teeth. Having regular check ups or if unable to go to the dentsit see if you can have a dentist call to their home.
Its important that a person has oral hygiene and mouth checks. Tiredness- a person with dementia may feel tired and not feel like eating or when eating stops in the maiddle of their food and does not want any more. If someone is tired their could lose concentration or have diffculties with co ordination. Its important to support someone to eat when they are more alert. By giving them smaller portions may encourage them to eat as sometimes looking at a large portion puts them off. Medication – Because of change of medication can sometimes make a person not what to eat eg: the medication ,makes them feel sickly. Speak to the G P to see if there is alterative medication.
Physical activity – Encourage activity as this is good for they welling being and well as increasing their appetite but if someone is not very active this could be why their as noy hungry, but a person who is very active oe restless may need more food to replavce the extra calories they are using. Constipation- This could make that person feel bloated or nauseous and with could make them not wanting to eat. To help with constipation encourage exercise, eating more fibre rich foods and drinking plenty of fluids. If constipation continues speak to the G P .
4 Explian the importance of recognising and meeting an individual’s personal and culture preferences for food and drink.
Its important around food and drink that we listen to that person and their families to ensure that we understand how food and drink can be a big part of that person culture, beliefs and religious. The types of food and how it is cooked can vey between different cultures so getting the correct information is very important. Food can also be influenced by differeant religions eg: Muslims only eat certain foods like pork that has been slaughtered in a prescibed way. This is known as Halal Pork. Animal fat and alcohol are not allowed. Try to offer food that is familiar to that person, especially foods that are favourites. Do not make assumptions about food preferences. Try to dress table in a particular cultural theme or if is they religious day try and involve that person around they meal or have a meal where their family could come along as well this could give then a sence of belonging. Offer a choice of menu. Develop a menu around that person’s like and dislikes.
5 Explain why it is important to include a variety of food and drink in the diet of an individual with dementia. A person with demnetia should have a full variety of food and drink because their taste may change because of their dementia or just with ageing. People with dementia should have a good nutrition as poor nutrition can have an impact on their health and well being. A person because of poor diet can lead to weight loss, nutritional deficiencies and if poor fluid intake can have a dramatic or dangerous results. By given that person a well balance diet will maximize physical, mental health and promotes well being.
Outcome 2 Understand the effects that mealtime environments can have on an individual with demnentia.
1 Describe how mealtime cultures and environment can have a barrier to meeting the nutritional needs of an individual with dementia Talk to the person or thier family about meal times, some cultures may have a mealtimes around how many severing there have or the size of meals they offer or it could be that they have food in a traditional order. Thier taste in food may have changed and might not like the food that is set infrom of them and this can change from day to day or their may not want to eat at the same time everyday or with others around them. Some people with dementia may find having a large meal in front of them puts them off and would rather have small portions. By trying to stick to normal meal time cultures, can be a barrier to the nutritional needs of that person.
A person with dementia should have personal centred care around their meals When helping someone with dementia around their environment while having the food and drink factors of their environment should be taken inmto consideration, eg: how many people are sitting at one table, have you got music on, is the restaurant bustling or has music playing this could distract or overwhelm a person with demnetia as it to much information be given a one time and their may not beable to foucs on their food.
2 Describe how mealtimes environment and food presentation can be designed to help an individual to eat and drink. Having a good environment for a person with dementia when eating and drinking plays a important part in having a good experience at meal times. This could have a positive impact on that person’s well being and health. To help improve with someones eating why not have a meal with them not only does it help with social activity but may help them with their independence as their can copy what you are doing. Make the environment familiar like smells of cooking, preparing the table, invite some of their friends round but always get the person’s permission as their maybe the type that would rather eat alone, allow plenty of space for that person to eat, keep the environment calm and relaxing, allow that person to pick where they would like to eat not everyone sit at a table, offer food choice, If someone had a sight problem have a well light room, make to food more colourful so thier see what their are eating, give a verbal description of the food , When serving food ensure you support that person by putting food on neutral coloured plates.
Eg use a black plate to but light food on or via versa to people can see the food on the plate. If the person as made a mess while eating do not worry about it as having the food is more imporatant. When preparing food or drink allow that person to partake this could allow that person to maintain their skills and interested in the food and drink thier preparing. Its important the we allow that person to do as much as thier can for themselves. By breaking down preparation of food will help an individual maintain thier independence for as long as possible make its a enjoyable task to their do not get bored. When preparing to do shopping or food involve that person to make thier own shopping take them with you as long as it safe to do so, so thier make their own choices of food and drink. If that person id unable to go out do it on line or a home shopping service you could sit with that person and make a list that way you could get a better understanding of what that person likes and dislike for when that person dementia deteriorates and you can then guide them with their food choice 3 Describe how a person centred approach can support an individual, with dementia at different levels of ability, to eat and drink.
A person with different levels of dementia can be support with personal centred care approach, with different levels of ability to help help them eat and drink. Always treat people with dementia as an individual and allow them to make informal choices is the best way to personal centered approaches. By treating people as an individual with their wishes and preferences will help them feel like their are an individual. This will allow the cares to give good quality care to that person. Even through some people who have dementia thier are atill able to pick out clothes or to have a choice of what their would like to eat and as long as that person is able to do so should be encouraged and supported. When someone with dementia cannot tell you what their would like, communicate by showing that person what is available to them, do not give to many options as this could confuse that person just make it one or two options at once. Be observant to see what their would choose or if something has been given that their do not like but this could just be the once that thier do not lke it so may be try it again at a later date. Talk to their family about their food and drink choices. We should always offer choices and options.