1. Define research according to 5 different authors.
Social Research is systematic method of exploring, analyzing, conceptualizing social life in order to extend, correct or verify knowledge aid in the construction of theory or in the practice of an art. – Kurtlewin (1988)
Research may to define as systematic and objective analysis of controlled observations that may lead to development of organizations, principles & possibility ultimate control of events. – John W. Best (2002)
Research is a systematic investigation to find solution to a problem. – Kothari (2002)
Research in any organization is the inquiry carried out to provide information for solving problem. – Cooper & Schindler (2003)
Scientific research is systematic controlled, empirical &critical investigation of hypothetical propositions about the presumed relations among the natural phenomenon. – Fred N. Kerlinger (2004)
2. Give the differences between research and problem solving.
Problem-solving is the process of working through details of a problem to reach a solution. Problem solving may include mathematical or systematic operations and can be a gauge of an individual’s critical thinking skills. In problem solving, you have all the information you need or are going to get, and you have to figure out something about this information. Research on the other hand is a systematic investigative process employed to increase or revise current knowledge by discovering new facts.
It is divided into two general categories: (1) Basic research is inquiry aimed at increasing scientific knowledge, and (2) Applied research is effort aimed at using basic research for solving problems or developing new processes, products, or techniques. In research, strictly speaking, you are looking for some information that nobody knows, at least as far as you have been able to discover. Loosely speaking, research may also mean looking up information that other people have collected. In research, you need to gather information before you can go on with other procedures while in problem solving, all information you need is given in the problem.
3. What are some hindrances to research? Why are they called hindrances?
1. Tradition. This is accepting that customs, beliefs, practices and superstitions are true and part of our daily lives. Even it is not true, we are always apply this in our lives w/o applying a scientific investigation. 2. Authority. This is accepting anything w/o a question, the opinion w/c the person has a big name to the authority w/o using any scientific investigation if it’s true. For example, when an ordinary man says smoking is bad for your health, they might laugh at you or ignore you. 3. Inaccurate Observation. This is describing wrongly what is observed. For example, four people are outside the hotel, wearing short skirts and pants. Some people will say they have no manners. The fact is that they are attending a party. 4. Overgeneralization. This is establishing a pattern out of a few instances. E.g., he went to Pearl Farm Beach Resort on Davao. From the name, it is producing pearls. So he concludes that there are many pearls in Davao. He doesn’t go to other places to see if there are many pearls in that province. 5. Selective Observation. This is persisting to believe an observed pattern from overgeneralization and ignoring others.
For example, when Filipinos hear a foreign song, and they observed that they are more pleasing to hear than local songs, they would say that foreign music are better than local songs w/o knowing that some of the local songs are also pleasing to hear. 6. Made-up Information. This is making up information to explain away confusion. For example, a buyer bought goods worth Php150.00 and paid Php200.00. Then the cashier mistakenly gives a change of Php60.00. He concludes that the cashiers in the store are not practiced. Now he comes back to the store to find the cashier that gave him excess change. Then he realized the cashier was kind. Instead of thinking he is kind after all, he will use some bad words to judge him and not realizing it. 7. Illogical Reasoning. This is attributing something to another w/o any logical basis.
For example, it will rain because there are two weeks that are sunny day. There is no logic after all. It is not cloudy. There are no low pressure areas. He/she doesn’t find any scientific investigations to find out if it will rain or not. 8. Ego involvement in understanding. This is giving an explanation when one finds himself an unfavorable situation. For example, he got low grades. Now the mother knew it, and got mad to his son for what he did, not because she’s mad to her son. The son explained that because his classmate is the favorite student. He does not make any effort to examine himself, to improve his studies, etc. 9. Mystification. This is attributing to supernatural power, the phenomena that cannot be understood.
This is accepting that there are things that are beyond our intelligence, like spirits, ghosts, or something that people think that are out of this world. 10. To err is human. This is an attitude that admits the fallibility of man. When he made a mistake, he will not study why he had committed this, and how he will correct it and make some effort to avoid this mistake again. 11. Dogmatism. This is an addition. This is an unwritten policy of certain institutions and governments prohibiting the study of topics that are believed to run counter to the established laws. For example, he will research about polygamy and try it, w/o knowing that is against the doctrines and laws of the government. But if he is a Moslem, he can do it. Some laws are different from one another
4. Why should the scientific method of research be followed? What are the steps in Scientific method? Explain. The Scientific Method is a logical and rational order of steps by which scientists come to conclusions about the world around them. It should be followed because the Scientific Method helps to organize thoughts and procedures so that you can be confident in the answers you will find by following its step by step process. The steps in scientific method are the following: a. State the problem. It is important to clearly state what your problem is to avoid any confusion later in the scientific method. b. Make Observations. This step could also be called “research.” It is the first stage in understanding the problem you have chosen. After you decide on your area of science and the specific question you want to ask, you will need to research everything that you can find about the problem.
c. Form a Hypothesis. The hypothesis is formed by examining the observations carefully and making an educated guess as to what the outcome might be. d. Do the Experiment. The experiment must be unbiased in nature, meaning that the scientist cannot create an experiment that will favor the outcome that they have predicted in their hypothesis. e. Draw a conclusion. This is a summary of the experiment’s results, and how those results match up to your hypothesis.You have two options for your conclusions: based on your results, either (1) you CAN REJECT the hypothesis, or (2) you CAN NOT REJECT the hypothesis. 5. Discuss the characteristics of a good research.
A good research should be relevant, effective, simple, edited, articulate, reliable, clear and helpful.
6. What are the purposes and goals of research? Discuss each. Research serves many purposes. Three of the most common and useful purposes, however, are exploration, description, and explanation. A great deal of social research is conducted to explore a topic or familiarize oneself with a topic. This typically occurs when a researcher becomes interested in a new topic or when the subject of study itself is relatively new. Often times, exploratory research is done through the use of focus groups or small group discussions, which are frequently used in market research. Another major purpose of social research is to describe situations and events. The researcher observes and then describes what he or she observed. A third major purpose of social research is to explain things. While descriptive studies attempt to answer the what, when, where, and how, explanatory studies attempt to answer the why.
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