The K to 12 Program covers Kindergarten and 12 years of basic education (six years of primary education, four years of Junior High School, and two years of Senior High School [SHS]) to provide sufficient time for mastery of concepts and skills, develop lifelong learners, and prepare graduates for tertiary education, middle-level skills development, employment, and entrepreneurship. This program of the government have six salient features, first is the strengthening of early childhood education, second is making the curriculum relevant to learners, third is ensuring integrated and seamless learning, fourth is building proficiency through language, fifth is gearing up for the future and last is nurturing the holistically developed Filipino. Every Filipino child now has access to early childhood education through Universal Kindergarten. At 5 years old, children start schooling and are given the means to slowly adjust to formal education. Research shows that children who underwent Kindergarten have better completion rates than those who did not. Children who complete a standards-based Kindergarten program are better prepared, for primary education.
Education for children in the early years lays the foundation for lifelong learning and for the total development of a child. The early years of a human being, from 0 to 6 years, are the most critical period when the brain grows to at least 60-70 percent of adult size..[Ref: K to 12 Toolkit] In Kindergarten, students learn the alphabet, numbers, shapes, and colors through games, songs, and dances, in their Mother Tongue. Examples, activities, songs, poems, stories, and illustrations are based on local culture, history, and reality. This makes the lessons relevant to the learners and easy to understand. Students acquire in-depth knowledge, skills, values, and attitudes through continuity and consistency across all levels and subjects. Discussions on issues such as Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR), Climate Change Adaptation, and Information & Communication Technology (ICT) are included in the enhanced curriculum.
After going through Kindergarten, the enhanced Elementary and Junior High curriculum, and a specialized Senior High program, every K to 12 graduate will be ready to go into different paths – may it be further education, employment, or entrepreneurship. Every graduate will be equipped with Information, media and technology skills, Learning and innovation skills, Effective communication skills and Life and career skills. To attain this salient features of the K to 12 Curriculum, all Grade Three teachers in the Philippines under went to a series of lectures where in it tackled everything about the curriculum for it to be more effective and enjoyable not just to the learners but also to the teachers. Readiness of the teachers that will teach this new type of curriculum is really a great challenge for the education of the learners. The learning of the pupils depends on the ability and eagerness of the teacher to develop a more confident and globally competitive individual for the near future.
Statement of the Problem
The study aims to identify the readiness of the grade three teachers to the K to 12 Curriculum in the District of Naic II.
Specifically, the study aims to answer the following questions:
1. What is K to 12 Curriculum?
2. What are the salient features of K to 12 Curriculum?
3. Are there significant difference in the K to 12 Curriculum to the BEC Curriculum? 4. What are the differences between the K to 12 Curriculum to the BEC Curriculum? 5. Are there significant relationship between the two Curriculum?
1. There is a significant difference between the K to 12 Curriculum and the BEC Curriculum. 2. There is a relationship between the K to 12 Curriculum and the BEC Curriculum.
Theoretical Framework of the Study
The most important question to answer about is what are the significance of K to 12 Curriculum to the Filipino learners? The answer would be the Filipinos are known to be more competitive in the international community. While this may be true, our current education system hinders us in becoming more competitive among other countries. The implementation of the K- 12 education plan in the Philippine Basic Education Curriculum is the key to our nation’s development. Though the government will face many problems in the long run of the implementation of the program, there really is a need to implement it because the enhancement of the quality of our education is very urgent and critical. By implementing this K to 12 Curriculum, students will be able to get sufficient instructional time to do subject- related tasks which makes them more prepared and well- trained on that subject area. On the other hand, if we remain on the old system, Filipino students would continually get low achievement scores. For instance, international test results revealed that we often come at the tail end in the exams compared to other countries.
Another good reason why we should support K- 12 is that the graduates of this program will be more prepared to enter the labor force. As we all noticed, high school graduates of the current curriculum are not yet employable for the reason that they are not yet competent and well – equipped with the skills needed in the workplaces. In addition, most high school graduates are not yet reaching the legal age of 18. With the new curriculum, senior high school students can choose a field that they are good at and that they are interested in. As a result, they will be equipped with the skills needed for a specific job even without a college degree. At the age of 18, the age when they graduate from high school, they will be employable and competitive already. Thus, adding up to the nation’s manpower.
Finally, with K- 12, Filipino graduates will be automatically recognized as professionals abroad because we are following the international education standard as practiced by all nations. There will be no need to study again and spend more money in order to qualify to their standards. With this, Filipino professionals who aspire to work abroad will not find a hard time in getting jobs in line with their chosen field and will be able to help their families more in the Philippines as well as the country’s economy with their remittances, property buying, and creation of businesses.
The K- 12 education plan offers a great solution to that problem. However, it is undeniable that there seems to be problems arising as we implement the program such as lack of government budget, classrooms and school supplies as well as the teachers. But, if we focus on the long- term effect of K- 12, we can conclude that it is very beneficial to us Filipinos. Therefore, we must have the strong will in supporting K- 12 Educational Plan for the betterment of our education system and economy. Remember, if we want change in our society, we must start it with our education system.
Paradigm of the Study
Scope and Delimination of the Study
The study aims to identify the significance of the K to 12 Curriculum over the previous Curriculum which is the BEC Curriculum. The significance of this were identified through series of questionnaires answered by some teachers underwent to the new and old curriculum of education.
There were two important areas in this study, namely : Significance of K to 12 Curriculum over BEC Curriculum and the Relationship between K to 12 Curriculum and BEC Curriculum.
Significance of the Study
By mere identifying the significance difference of the K to 12 Curriculum to the BEC Curriculum, the new curriculum provides more productive outcomes in the presence of the teacher and the learner. In addition to this, with the new style of our curriculum more learners can express their selves much as before. And through this teachers will find it easily to execute the lesson well with the better understanding of the pupils.
The results of the study will be most valuable to the following: 1. To the School Administrators. The results can be used as a basis to improve the K to 12 Program. 2. To the School Teachers. The results can help the classroom teachers to think of more innovative ways on how they can make the K to 12 Program more lively and interesting to the learners. 3. To the Learners. Implementing the K to 12 Curriculum helps them to understand easily the lessons and express and share their ideas to others.
Defenition of Terms
K to 12. This stand to Kindergarten education plus the twelve formal education.
Curriculum. It refers to the means and materials with which students will interact for the purpose of achieving identified educational outcomes.
Basic Education Curriculum. It is the curriculum used by the Department of Education in the year 2002 that promotes holistic growth of the Filipino learners and enable them to acquire the core competencies and develop the proper values.
Review of Related Literature
Materials which are related in the present study were read and presented to give readers insight into the studies already conducted along this area of investigation, to find out how the data were gathered for the purpose of gaining suggestions useful to the present study and to look into the findings and conclusion which may be relevant to the present one.
A brief summary of some of these investigation with significant relations to the present study is made in this chapter.