the name of Christendom and sanctioned by the Roman Catholic Church against pagans, heretics and Muslims. The campaigns were accordingly religious in nature with the aim of recapturing Jerusalem and the Holy Land from the Muslims. Madden though has given us an alternative examination on another possible and logical reason for the occurrence which is the search of wealth. A noble crusader would gladly risk his life and go to war if he believes that the fight is noble, true and greater than them (Madden, p. 13). For many, the sincere love of God could bring men to fight horrible wars
A unprovoked Holy War against the Muslims became an acceptable idea when the concept of a unified Christian Kingdom under the Papal guidance evolved. The political concept that incorporated religion and belief was also hatched with another purposeful interest over the surrounding lands of Christ’s birthplace which was considered a valuable relic for the Christians. This was made plausible after the Arab empire under the Umayyads captured North Africa, Egypt, Palestine, Syria and Spain from the foothold of the Byzantine Empire of the 8th century (Setton, 1958).
An ideological concept was formed to recapture the lands lost to the Muslims which picked up potency after Spanish Kingdoms began to mobilize knights, armies and mercenaries across Europe to fight against the Muslims. Another idea which formed part of the reasons for the war was the success of the European forces against the Moorish caliphate at Cordoba little Muslim kingdoms arose in the region; they were subdued by the Normans. In effect, Europe was left with a stable class of warriors without a bloody war to fight and had little to do but cause havoc amongst them.
2) Discuss the First Crusade. Who were the principal players? Briefly describe what happened. What were the results of the First Crusade? The First Crusade which started sometime in 1095 was initiated by Alexius I call for help against the Seljuk Turks at the Council of Clermont (Arbor, 2004, p. 224). Under the guise of penance and pardon for sins, Pope Urban II called upon all Christians to fight a war against the Turks. The defeat of two Turkish armies in Dorylaeum and Antioch allowed the crusaders to march to Jerusalem half of their original men, dead or missing.
The war ended in 1099 after and assault and massacre of Jerusalem’s population that were notably followed by less notable conquests (Runciman, 1952). Interestingly, the First Crusade was considered of the main reason for the Western power after its first and only capture of Jerusalem. The defeat of the Byzantine Empire in the East in the hands of the Seljuk Turks provided a substantial plan for assault against the Muslims. Although the Byzantine Empire followed a separate Orthodox religion, they did face many enemies including the Seljuks.
Madden provided that the Turkish threat allowed the Protestants to flourish (Madden, p. 209). The empire was soon incorporated into the Great Seljuk territory. Alexius I saw a way to work with the Fatimids of Palestine and Egypt and advised the crusader to work with them believing that their sole purpose was to recapture Syria alone. Belatedly they sent their armies only after the crusaders were already in Jerusalem. The First Crusade brought forth a mass and organized violence of anti-Semitism that was existent in Europe for several centuries against the Jews.
The German army was led by Gottschalk, Volkmar, and Emicho which proceeded to the Rhine valley and according to Riley-Smith (1986, p. 50) was the first Holocaust. Some preachers enhanced the idea that Jews and Muslims were enemies of Christ and should be converted to Christianity or die as an enemy. In some parts of France and Germany, Jews were blamed for Christ’s crucifixion for their immediate visibility than the Muslims. The Jews were massacred justified by Pope Urban’s speech at Clermont that promised reward from God for killing non-Christians and Muslims (Runciman, 1952).
Later in 1096, a band of nobles and knights from different regions of Europe significantly led by Raymond IV of Toulouse, Adhemar of Le Puy; Bohemund of Taranto with his nephew Tancred, the Lorrainers under the brothers Godfrey of Bouillon, Eustace and Baldwin of Boulogne and Count Robert II of Flanders, Robert of Normandy, Stephen, Count of Blois, and Hugh of Vermandois the younger brother of King Philip I of France marched towards Jerusalem in December 1096. Along the way, they encountered machinations led by Byzantine Alexius who provided them with provisions if they return any land to him that was recovered from the Turks.
With this in motion, Alexius agreed to send out a Byzantine army to accompany the crusaders through Asia Minor. After a lengthy siege in Nicaea, under Kilij Arslan I the crusaders won yet Alexius feared the crusaders sacking Nicea and destroying its wealth and secretly accepted the surrender of the city. In their march to Dorylaeum, Godfrey broke the Turkish lines and defeated the Turks and looted their camp. This enabled Kilij Arslan to withdraw and the crusaders marched unopposed through Asia Minor towards Antioch. Antioch was so large that the crusaders did not have enough troops to fully surround it.
Since Bohemund wanted the city for himself, he bribed an Armenian guard to surrender his tower where the crusaders entered the city and killed most of the inhabitants. A monk psychologically renewed the gist of the fight claiming a Holy Lance was found thus providing for them a sign that they would be victorious. Personal ambition later paved the way for arguments that deviously disclaimed any allegiance to an oath before Alexius I. A plague which killed many and the refusal of the Muslims to give food to the crusaders recounted incidents of cannibalism.
Baldwin of Boulogne though went on his own towards the Armenian lands around Euphrates and was adopted as heir by King Thoros, a Greek Orthodox ruler who was soon assassinated and Baldwin became the new ruler. This paved way for the County of Edessa, to be the first of the crusader states in Runciman (1952). The crusaders finally reached Jerusalem in May and put the city in a lengthy siege. Seven days later, the crusaders murdered almost every inhabitant of Jerusalem. Godfrey of Bouillon was made Protector of the Holy Sepulchre and refused to wear a crown.
He also led an army of an invading Fatimid army at the Battle of Ascalon and was succeeded by his brother, Baldwin of Edessa who became “King of Jerusalem”. 3) Examine the Second Crusade. Explain the rise of Saladin. Why was he successful against European armies? The Second Crusade was marked as a response to the Fall of Edessa. Pope Eugene III with the European monarchs like Louis VII of France, Conrad III of Germany along with their army marched across Europe. Although they were defeated by the Seljuk Turks, they reached Jerusalem in 1148 an attacked Damascus. Jerusalem was recaptured by the Muslims.
What failures the crusaders faced in Jerusalem were compensated by their efforts in converting people to Christianity. The Second Crusade however attracted popular figures such as Eleanor of Aquitaine, the Queen of France, Thierry of Alsace Count of Flanders; Henry, the future Count of Champagne; Louis’ brother Robert I of Dreux; Alphonse I of Toulouse; William II of Nevers; William de Warenne, Earl of Surrey; Hugh VII of Lusignan and numerous other nobles and bishops (Runciman; 1952). This was made possible after St. Bernard preached its importance to the people.
However, the relations within the Crusade were poor and were faced with conflict. Complaints of plunder happened along the way while treachery and political aspirations summed up the greedy endeavors of nobles. King Baldwin III and the Knights Templar made Damascus their prime target where they all met in Acre on June 24 attended by Conrad, Otto, Henry II of Austria, future emperor Frederick I Barbarossa , William V of Montferrat of the Holy Roman Empire; Louis, Alphonse’s son Bertrand, Thierry of Alsace, and various other ecclesiastical and secular lords.
Jerusalem King Baldwin, Queen Melisende, Patriarch Fulk, Robert of Craon as the Master of the Knights Templar, Raymond du Puy de Provence as Master of the Knights Hospitaller were among those present (Runciman, 1952). No one from Antioch, Tripoli, or the former County of Edessa attended. The crusaders then attacked Damascus from the west. Yet, the Muslims were prepared for the attack after the crusaders managed to fight their way through and chase the defenders back .
Damascus had sought help from Saif ad-Din Ghazi I of Aleppo and Nur ad-Din of Mosul, who led an unsuccessful attack on the crusader camp. The Muslim camps also did not trust one another and the crusaders could not agree about who would receive the city if they captured it. Wrongful calculations made some tactical errors in their moves which later forced them to retreat back to Jerusalem. The siege of Damascus was disastrous for Jerusalem and the city was handed over to Nur ad-Din in 1154. Baldwin III seized Ascalon in 1153 and created conflicts with Egypt.
Relations with the Byzantine Empire were rare after the disaster of the Second Crusade. In 1171, Saladin, a nephew of one of Nur ad-Din’s generals, was proclaimed Sultan of Egypt and united Egypt and Syria which completely surrounded the crusader kingdom. In 1187 Jerusalem surrendered to Saladin. 4) Provide a brief summary of the Third Crusade. How does the rivalry between Phillip II of France and Richard I of England impact the crusading effort? How does the Third Crusade end and what are the consequences? The Third Crusade (c. 1189–1192 in Arbor, P.
224 Timelines) was an attempt by European leaders to regain the Holy Land from Saladin. The Crusade army was destroyed as they laid siege to the city of Tiberias. King Guy and Raynald were brought to Saladin’s tent and Guy was offered a goblet of water. Guy took a drink and Raynald who had not drank water grabbed the goblet from Guy’s hands. Saladin beheaded Raynald for past betrayals and an apparent disrespect for their customs. Saladin had taken Acre and Jerusalem by the end of the year which coincided with Pope Urban III’s death.
By 1190, Richard the Lionheart captured Messina and fell out of terms with Philip in Richard’s decision to marry Berengaria of Navarre thereby breaking his long-standing engagement to Philip’s half-sister Alys (Setton, 1958). Philip left Sicily for the Middle East on March 30, 1191, and joined the siege of Acre on May 20. Meanwhile, King Guy who was released from prison by Saladin in 1189 attempted to take command of the Christian forces at Tyre. Conrad of Montferrat who held power there after a successful defense of the city from Muslims made Guy turned his attention to the wealthy port of Acre instead.
Receiving aid from Philip’s newly-arrived French army, it was still not enough to subdue Saladin’s force. When Queen Sibylla and her young daughters died, Guy, who was made king by right of marriage tried to retain his crown which was to Sibylla’s half-sister Isabella who later married to Conrad of Montferrat and claimed the kingship in her name. When Richard arrived, Philip and Leopold quarreled over the spoils. The kingship of Jerusalem became a struggle with Philip and Leopold supported Conrad while Richard supporting Guy.
Guy would continue to rule with Conrad as the crowned king. Philip and Leopold left the Holy Land in August. Saladin meanwhile was not willing to honor the terms at Acre so Richard had more than 3,000 Muslim prisoners executed on August 20 outside of Acre. On 1191, Richard won the battle against Saladin and was forced to accept Conrad as king of Jerusalem. Before Conrad could be crowned, he was stabbed to death and Richard became a suspect in his death. The arrangement of marrying off Queen Isabella who was pregnant to Henry II of Champagne triggered talks.
Saladin suddenly attacked but was recaptured by Richard where they finally agreed that Jerusalem should be left to Muslim rule but allowed Christian pilgrims to visit the city. Richard left the Holy Land and his fleet was struck by a violent storm, carrying his new fiancee Berengaria, and vast amounts of treasure amassed for the crusade (Setton, 1958). Emperor Isaac Dukas Comnenus of Cyprus had held the treasure and despite an agreement to return them to Richard, instead ordered Richard to leave the island. This prompted Richard to conquer the island within days.
In December 1192, Richard was arrested and imprisoned by Duke Leopold, for murdering his cousin Conrad of Montferrat and later transferred to the custody of Henry VI. Richard returned to England in 1194 and died after a wound in 1199 at the age of 41 (Setton, 1958). 5) Discuss the Fourth Crusade. Why is it launched? What does the Fourth Crusade accomplish? Often described as the most gainful crusade, the Fourth Crusade was originally designed to conquer Jerusalem through Egypt. Instead, the Eastern Orthodox city of Constantinople proved more alluring.
None of the crusaders ever reached the Holy Land and in fact created a wide gap between the Catholics and the Orthodox. Fighting with each other ensued with the Latin Empire facing a number of enemies and the crusade energy dropped as the Latin instilled a sense of betrayal to the Greeks. Their fight for supremacy led to the capture and death of leaders in their own hands and displaying their own lunacy. Ironically, the Greeks thought that the Byzantine civilization centered at the Orthodox faith would be more secure under the Ottomans, and preferred to sacrifice their political freedom in order to preserve the religion.
The fourth was the last major crusade directed by the Holy See after bickering led its collapse. 6) Discuss the crusades against other parts of Europe(e. g. the Reconquista, Albigensian, etc. ). What did the Crusaders hope to accomplish? The Pope had authorized a Crusade in Spain and urged the Spaniards to fight the Moors present in their own territory. Many believed though that it was not waged merely for to lessen Muslim presence in the Iberian Peninsula. It was seen the though rhat most noble births are identified in the relationships between Muslims and Christians.
A war on the Iberian Kingdom which was faced with a deep economic crisis would lead to the expulsion of the Jews and confiscate their property. The Albigensian Crusade or Cathar Crusade was initiated in 1209 by the Catholics to eliminate the heretics and the religion practicedby the Cathars of Southern France in an effort to extend the Church’s control southwards. Under Pope Gregory IX, the Inquisition gave unlimited power to suppress the heretics that started a ruthless campaign against the Cathars who were caught and burned.
The Cathar strongholds gradually fell which ended the last known Cathar burning in Languedoc in 1321. 7) Discuss the later Crusades. How are the achievements of earlier Crusades dismantled? What new powers emerge? What finally defeats the ethos of the Crusades? The various succeeding Crusades presented a struggle for a supreme cause like the fifth which attempted to formulate a recovery of the Holy Land in 1215 joined by forces from Hungary and Austria that led to the destruction of the Nile in Egypt.
The 6th Crusade of Emperor Frederick II met some success that delivered Jerusalem, Nazareth and Bethlehem to the Crusaders for ten years. The succeeding 7th crusade was represented by the Templars that came out a failure. While the 8th failed upon the death of Louis IX. Edward I undertook another expedition and accomplished very little in Syria with after a truce. The fall of Antioch in 1268, Tripoli in 1289 and Acre in 1291 marked the last traces of the Christian rule in Syria (Arbor, p. 224). The acts of barbarism and aggression coupled with the tension between church leader and monarchs became a controversy among the nobles.
The brutal acts against one another belied the viewpoint of a defensive war against Muslim aggression as the ravages of war returned more benefits for the aggressor. 8) What are the legacies of the Crusades? How did the Crusades advance Western Christianity’s notion of the Kingdom of God (or did not)? The Crusades favorably for the Western culture dramatized their unity under the influence of the Holy See. The military experience drew out a certainty to protect European castles from outside invasion as massive stone structures were erected to surround the castle.
It has also opened the European culture to the world and likewise the Middle East to Europe which for sometime Europe frowned upon. In the essence of knighthood and folkloric tales, the Crusades brought a Romantic zest in an otherwise clamor for power and wealth. Scientific advancement brought forth a new experience to speed the advancement in European universities. Economically, the transport of large armies in an otherwise less traveled road saw an increase in profit as colonies engage in trade that brought in unknown variety of spices, ivory, jade, diamonds, food and other Asian crops.
Religiously, had it not been for the Crusades, Spain, Portugal, and the Balkans would be a predominantly Muslim country today and Christianity might have been largely replaced by Islam. The Crusades as a religious and righteous campaign to fight for a just cause against the perceived evil was used to actually justify the ambitious efforts of creating a unified control among nations under the guise of religion. 9) Finally, discuss your general impression of the Crusades. Within the context of the Crusades, how do you reconcile the statement `impelled by the love of God` with the actions of those who participated?
The unnecessary deaths of many innocent beings under the hands of the Crusaders could not account and explain the apparent disregard for moral teachings of the bible that positively recommend “love for one another”. As crimes against another is committed to pave way for a religious war which reeks of control and subjugation of the weak we begin to see the hypocritical machinations to use religion as means to get what a group is most likely salivating salivate over. The participants of the Crusades clearly lack the civil capacity to uphold the rights of another being in order to exercise control over him.
Work Cited Page Runciman, Steven. A History of the Crusades, vol. II: The Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Frankish East, 1100-1187. London: Cambridge University Press, 1952. Setton, Kenneth. ed. A History of the Crusades, vol. I. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1958. Riley-Smith , Jonathan. The First Crusade and the Idea of Crusading. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press 1986, p. 50. Madden, Thomas F. General Editor. The Crusades: the Illustrated History. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 2004.