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The Human-Computer Interface Essay

Haptic feedback, often referred to as simply “haptics”, is the use of the sense of touch in a user interface design to provide information to an end user. When referring to mobile phones and similar devices, this generally means the use of vibrations from the device’s vibration alarm to denote that a touchscreen button has been pressed. In this particular example, the phone would vibrate slightly in response to the user’s activation of an on-screen control, making up for the lack of a normal tactile response that the user would experience when pressing a physical button.

The resistive force that some “force feedback” joysticks and video game steering wheels provide is another form of haptic feedback. (“What Is “haptic Feedback”? “) Haptic technologies known as haptic feedback is technologies that allow users to feel a response from a system, not just see or hear a response; optimally, can replicate the sensation of feeling an object in the real life to create a virtual tactile experience. (Anderson, Greg, David L. Ferro, and Robert Hilton) Haptic feedback is a signal that you’re electronics like phones, computers, PlayStation 3 controllers, XBOX 360 controllers and other devices.

It will vibrated or leave note when you are getting messages, calls, voice mail, emails, when your devices is about to die out. It also gives you a message when you change your phone or any other devices. Below there is an example of how is haptic is uses on a phone, iPhone, iPad and any other touch device. The word haptic, from the Greek (haptikos), means pertaining to the sense of touch and comes from the Greek verb haptesthai meaning to “contact” or “touch. (Park, Will) Haptic feedback uses the sense of touch to provide information to the end user when they interact with an interface.

The term haptic feedback, also known to refers to the sense of touch, which consists of cutaneous (touch arises from the sensations of the skin) and kinaesthetic (touch sensations arise from the muscles, joints, and tendons) touch. Cutaneous touch is also called tactile perception, so haptic feedback that gives only cutaneous information is known as tactile feedback. (Park, Will) Haptic feedback is needed it because it really tell the owner about their hand held devices that tells us that the phone vibrated when you are getting messages, calls, voice mail, emails, when your devices is about to die out.

You also you can set up the hand held device the way that you want it to be so it can be comfortable for your use. The various types of human memory are Sensory storage (1 second), Short-term memory (1minute), and Long-term memory (life-time). In them various types of human memory you also have Explicit memory (conscious) and Implicit memory (unconscious). Explicit memory also has facts, events that are called Declarative memory (facts, events) and that break down to Episodic memory (events, experiences) and Semantic memory (facts, concepts). In Implicit memory you only have Procedural memory (skills, tasks).

The Explicit memory, Declarative memory, Episodic memory, Semantic memory, Implicit memory, and Procedural memory are in the Long-term memory. All of these types of various are in the human memory and they all work together to keep memory. Below it is an example how the various types of human memory work. This model of memory as a sequence of three stages, from sensory to short-term to long-term memory, rather than as a unitary process, is known as the modal or multi-store or Atkinson-Shiffrin model, after Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin who developed it in 1968, and it remains the most popular model for studying memory. Mastin, Luke) It is often also described as the process of memory, but I have used this description for the processes of encoding, consolidation, storage and recall in the separate Memory Processes section. (Mastin, Luke)

Sensory memory is where sensory information is first processed by the human brain before passing it to short-term memory. It also can handle a lot of information simultaneously but can’t store it for long just only for one second. (Anderson, Greg, David L. Ferro, and Robert Hilton) Short-term memory is where information is sent after the sensory system receives it and its limited to storing five to nine items temporarily.

Anderson, Greg, David L. Ferro, and Robert Hilton) Last Long-term memory is also where information is stored on a semipermanent basis and this can store a potentially limitless amount, retrieving information can be more difficult. (Anderson, Greg, David L. Ferro, and Robert Hilton) Sensory memory, Short-term memory, and Long-term memory impact on the human-computer interface because in sensory memory it acts as a kind of buffer for stimuli received through the five senses of sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch, which are retained accurately, but very briefly.

Short-term memory acts as a kind of “scratch-pad” for temporary recall of the information which is being processed at any point in time, and has been referred to as “the brain’s Post-it note”. Long-term memory is, obviously enough, intended for storage of information over a long period of time. Potential outcomes of not using consistency in the human-computer interface a property of a good user interface is consistency. Good user interface design is about getting a user to have a consistent set of expectations, and then meeting those expectations.

The potential outcomes of not using consistency in the human-computer interface would mean that it wouldn’t give the user flexibility in different interface like keyboard, mouse, voice, and so forth for input. It wouldn’t allow users to change focus so that they can interrupt what they’re doing without being trapped in a long, and possibly unwanted, sequence. Last it would display the descriptive messages that are helpful and not distracting. The steps of the user-centric design process are gather and analyze user information, design the user interface, construct the user interface, and test the user interface.

Phase 1: in gathering and analyzing user information it involves steps such as developing user’s profiles. In gathering and analyzing user information it has user profiles, user tasks, user requirements, and user environment. The User profiles are written descriptions of which the user are, including backgrounds, skills, and so forth. Techniques such as conducting interviews, taking surveys, and examining historical data are helpful. (Anderson, Greg, David L. Ferro, and Robert Hilton) The User tasks are what users do and how they do it.

You can discover this information with interviews, but observation is more helpful. (Anderson, Greg, David L. Ferro, and Robert Hilton) The User requirements are what users want and what they need to do. Gathering user requirements, usually with focus groups, interviews, and surveys, focuses on what users expect the product to do for them. (Anderson, Greg, David L. Ferro, and Robert Hilton) Typical questions users ask are who installs and supports the product and how much it will cost. (Anderson, Greg, David L. Ferro, and Robert Hilton) The User environment is where users perform their tasks.

User environment analysis examines where users performing their tasks and is usually best done through observation and reviewing existing data. Environment factors include lighting, noise, temperature, and ergonomics (how people’s bodies interact with technology). (Anderson, Greg, David L. Ferro, and Robert Hilton) Phase 2: designing the user interface and in this phase, a product’s usability goals and objective are defined, user scenarios are develop. (Anderson, Greg, David L. Ferro, and Robert Hilton) User scenarios are examples of user activities, written to show the steps users go through in using a technology.

Usability goals and objectives are defined in terms of usefulness, effectiveness, learnability, and attitude. (Anderson, Greg, David L. Ferro, and Robert Hilton) Usefulness is a measure of how many of the intended tasks user can perform with the technology. Effectiveness is a measure of how well the technology helps users perform their tasks. Learnability is a measure of how quickly users can learn to use the technology to perform their tasks. Last, attitude is a measure of how much users enjoy their experience with the technology. Phase 3: constructing the user interface it talking about the prototype.

The risk of prototyping is that many people consider a prototype the final product that needs just a little refinement. (Anderson, Greg, David L. Ferro, and Robert Hilton) In phase 4: validating the user interface and this where the usability goals and objectives are defined in terms of usefulness, effectiveness, learnability, and attitude defined in Phase 2 come into play. (Anderson, Greg, David L. Ferro, and Robert Hilton) The researchers can examine all impressions, from facial expressions to pause in mouse clicks, to determine where the user interface succeeds and fails.


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