1. What was the mood at the outset of the war, and what caused it? At the outset of the war was that all of the people were excited, they wanted action therefore praising the army, the people were very nationalistic. The war was caused by a buildup of nationalist ideas and growing tensions between countries. The people were bored and nationalism inspired the people to start wars. 2. What were the main· features of trench warfare for the troops involved? What would happen to people who managed to live through this experience? The troops had little food, lick grass for water, had to bear the sight of other’s deaths, as well as live under the thought that they could die at any moment. The people who lived through this of often scarred for life, mentally and physically and even being depressed.
3. What makes Remarque’s writing so powerful? Why would people want to read a war novel of this sort? It showed the true meaning of war and the conditions and what it was like to go through war being a soldier. People often see trench war as an interesting topic so it is natural to read the stories. 4. What was new about warfare as Remarque and Kreisler describe it? There were a lot of deaths and less collision fighting. They were waiting each other out with deaths around them with little food. 5. What were the wider implications of the fighting, for example for the political values of veterans after the war had ended? Can you see connections with some of the new political and cultural movements of the 1920s? The political values of the veterans tended to be biased due to the scarring in the war. Since they were in the war they were probably connected with other world threats such as Nazism and fascism because of previous war experiences.
The Western State
1. What did Hitler mean by the personality principle? It meant that there is no voting rights or majority rules, basically it’s saying no democracy. Only 1 person would make the decisions while others could only advise, a dictatorship. 2. Why might Hitler’s ideas appeal to Germans who had experienced World War I? Hitler’s ideas would appeal to Germans because they knew the results of poor leadership with democratic rights. Due to the results of democracy and large casualties, the veterans didn’t want to go through that again. 3. What kind of state, with what purposes, did the Nazis seek? There weren’t any representation for people, the people had no say, they could only advise the selected leader.
4. What changes in state functions did the Beveridge Report advocate? The Report of the Inter-Departmental Committee on Social Insurance and Allied Services, known commonly as the Beveridge Report was an influential document in the founding of the Welfare State in the United Kingdom. It changed the state function by expanding National Insurance and with the creation of the National Health Service. 5. What were the main differences between Nazi and welfare-state political definitions? The Nazi political definitions placed emphasis on no majority control, they wanted a dictatorship in which that the whole country would follow him. Welfare state political definition emphasized cooperation between the government and the people, therefore giving some power to the people. 6. Why did the 20th century see a growth in state claims, albeit under various systems, in Western society? They wanted to see a more organized countries as well as trying to gain more control so that they could continue to be a world power and compete against other nations.