Interior design is the art of using and managing the space within a structure: between and within furniture, major fixtures, walls and rooms in the most aesthetically-pleasing way without sacrificing functionality. Its applicability is usually dependent on the type of space whether it is corporate, academic, residential, etc. Its practice is also usually coupled with architecture, engineering and product design. As most art forms, interior design had its beginnings in different points in history and in various places in the world.
To be able to comprehensively map out the history and development of interior design, it is necessary to identify the civilizations all over the world that had a hand on the earliest beginnings of this professions, as well as major architects and designers of each period and area who shaped the most lasting influences and the impact of whose work are still apparent today. 1 (History of interior design, Jeannie Ireland, Jan 2009, Berg Publishers, USA) The history of design also necessarily evolved with architecture, among other professions, since both are very closely intertwined.
A separate exploration of the Western and Eastern designs will also be necessary as such categorization is considered as the two most distinct waves in design and art history. Western Wave One the most notable figure in design is Antoni Gaudi (1852-1926) of Barcelona, Spain whose work became noteworthy due to his attention to intricate detail and for having flowing and unusual designs consistent with the Art Nouveau style. He reconstruction an 1904 structure Casa Batllo, which included remarkable renovations of the building’s facade that involved bone-like designs.
Small, irregularly-shapped mirrors were attached to the paneled doors while ceilings were constructed with plaster that featured swirling, curved forms. 2 (The History of Interior Design, 2000, John Pile, John Wiley & Sons, USA). The structure is a testament of Gaudi’s highly personal, rather unusual, flowing design. Another figure in design history who made a unique mark was Pierre Chareau (1883-1950) whose most notable work is the 1928 Maison de Verre more popularly known as the House of Glass found in Paris.
Chareau used various materials such as steel and concrete but particularly used an abundance of glass. He also came up with furniture designs that are noted for his use of rich woods and heavy upholstery which paired with unsophisticated folding seating and metal framing and wicker seats and backs. This design shows a shift from Art Deco to the International Style. 3(The History of Interior Design, 2000, John Pile, John Wiley & Sons, USA)] Jumping off from the emergence of the International Style, Walter Gropius (1937) of Lincoln, Massachusetts, produced many of the notable works of this period.
The style became popular in the US, via the movement of some European artists to the country. Consistent with Chareau, Gropius’ works featured a generous application of glass. His works also included spiral stairs and tubular columns. Eastern Wave Eastern influences apparent in the western designs has its roots from the East-West trade. Many eastern artifacts, and necessarily eastern design, were brought back by Western traders since the days of Marco Polo. Eastern artifacts were the subject of curiosity of westerners primarily for the its stark difference from the western variety.
Materials such as porcelain and silk from China were highly-priced and considered exotic and many western designers incorporated them to their work. 3 Images: List of references: 1. Ireland, J. ; History of interior design. USA: Berg Publishers, 2009. 2. Pile, J. ; The History of Interior Design. USA: John Wiley & Sons, 2000. 3. Interior design. (2009). In Britannica Encyclop? dia. Retrieved May 16, 2009, from Britannica Student Encyclop? dia:http://student. britannica. com/comptons/article-202762/interior-design