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The Fate Of Drugs And Drug Development Essay

The most appropriate dosage form for administering drugs to pediatric patients is the low-dose liquid format, computed through the patient’s kilogram body weight.  Pediatric patients are generally small in body size and thus a very low dose is sufficient in attaining the desired clinical outcome.  For adults, the maximum dose in tablet or capsule form can be administered.

(2)  A drug in tablet or capsule form easily disintegrates in the stomach and the contents are further dissolved as it passes through into the small intestines, where absorption takes place.

(3)  Pharmacokinetics pertains to the action of drugs in terms of absorption, as well as metabolism within the human body (Sharan et al., 2009).  This field also deals with the distribution of the drug and its eventual excretion.

(4)  Pharmacokinetics involves a specific order of activities with regards to a drug because it describes the actual steps that occur during drug intake.  Before the actual effect of a drug takes place, the active ingredient needs to be absorbed through the intestinal lining and further distributed to the target areas of the body.  Metabolism then occurs which is the incorporation of the drug to the target areas.  Any excess or used drugs are then removed from the body through the process of excretion.

(5)  The chemical nature of the drug determines the absorption ability of a drug.  Lipophilic drugs generally enter the cells quickly, due to its similarity in composition to the plasma membrane.  High dosages can also increase the absorption of a drug into cells.

(6)  Pharmacodynamics pertains to the effect of a drug in terms of its biochemistry and physiological action in the human body.

(7)  One main action of a drug is to stimulate the human body to perform a specific action (Kang and Lee, 2009).  Another type of drugs is the depressant, which slows down specific activities in the body.  There are also cytotoxic drugs that kill specific cells in the body.  Other drugs are aimed to replace certain substances that are lacking or at very low levels in the body.

(8)  The general relationship observed is that when a drug response is attained, the serum concentration of that same drug is found to be at its highest dose.  Drug manufacturing is mainly based on the preparation of capsules or tablets that contain the minimum amount of the drug that can exert a response in the human body (Najib, 2009).

(9)   An adverse effect of a drug occurs when there are more than enough amounts that are circulating in the body of a patient.  The excess amount can cause damage to the liver of an individual (Marin et al., 2009).  Drug-drug interactions pertain to the effect of one drug on another, if they are administered at the same time.  The presence of another drug may either interfere or enhance the effect of another drug and thus it is important for a physician to know all the drugs that a patient takes before prescribing or administering any new drugs.

References
Kang, J.S. and Lee, M.H.  (2009).  Overview of therapeutic drug monitoring.  Korean Journal of Internal Medicine, 24, 1-10.

Marin, J.J., Briz, O., Perez, M.J., Romero, M.R. and Monte, M.J.  (2009).  Hepatobiliary transporters in the pharmacology and toxicology of anticancer drugs.  Frontiers in Bioscience, 14, 4257-4280.

Najib, J.  (2009).  The efficacy and safety profile of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, a prodrug of d-amphetamine, for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adults.  Clinical Therapeutics, 31, 142-176.

Sharan, K., Siddiqui, J.A., Swarnkar, G., Maurya, R. and Chattopadhyay, N.  (2009).  Role of phytochemicals in the prevention of menopausal bone loss: Evidence from in vitro and in vivo, human interventional and pharma-cokinetic studies.  Current Topics in Medical Chemistry, 16, 1138-1157.


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