The essence of human being Since ancient times by different scientists have tried to give a precise definition of the nature of man. The concept of human nature extremely broad, it can be used to describe not only the greatness and strength of a man, but also weakness and disadvantages. Human nature is unique in its contradictory unity of the material and the spiritual sides. However, with this concept, we can only see the contradictions in tragic way of human nature. A man cannot jump out of him/her body shell, and forget about it.
Man is able to realize the contradictions of his nature, to understand that it belongs to the conflicting worlds the world of freedom and the world of necessary physical needs. Not everyone can middle between spiritual and material things. Hence, nobody can find what more important thing is for human being. In legend of Grand Inquisitor, on the main characters, Grand Inquisitor discussed about human nature, he gave own explanation. According to Grand Inquisitor points, the human nature is weak, rebel, materialist, and does not want to possess freedom.
However, it is very difficult to give exact definition of human nature, because it depends on individual and every person has own way life. The most important thing in the world is earthly bread. Grand inquisitor said that people cannot live without material things. If somebody gave earthly bread mankind would follow him/her. Even though, there are people who value only heavenly bread; they cannot live without earthly bread, as freedom cannot feed them. Grand Inquisitor said that even if adherents of Jesus will be free. Followers cannot live without satisfying physical needs and they will look for the materialists. These free men will be dependent on materialists, because they do not have anything. Mankind will do anything for earthly bread.
Possession of material things brings a satisfaction for people. However if humanity does not possess such satisfaction, then they can destroy everything for a piece of bread. At the end, mankind will proclaim that all actions were done for the common good. The second point is freedom, that it is the most difficult burden for human nature. Grand Inquisitor said that people try to find a tutor in order to he/she was responsible for their actions. In return, people will bow down before him/her, because tutor eliminates because he/she saves people from worries of the decision-making.
Moreover, Grand Inquisitor believed that the searching of tutelage is the need for general obedience of humanity. It means that people always will find object of worship. People will destroy each other for their gods, because of everyone thinks that his/her God is the best. Finally, people do not want to make decision by themselves, because eventually they will be charged with actions.
The third point is that human nature is weak. Grand Inquisitor believed that not everyone can withstand a spiritual freedom. Since, people try to quickly pass the freedom to those who soothe their consciences. Only a few will be able to live free as a simple human happiness and freedom of conscience are not compatible. For achievement of human happiness, people often deceive, betray and even kill, thus forgetting about the basic moral principles.
The fourth point, that humanity is made a rebel. Grand Inquisitor believed that people will always revolt, because they always desire something. if somebody satisfies their wishes, then they will give up him/her. Accordingly, earthly bread, the most important is partially true. People cannot live without satisfying physical needs. People are created so that their body requires constant energy. If people do not have basic living conditions, they will do everything to achieve the goal. If people physical provide their basic needs such as food, clothing, and dwelling, they can think about other things. Consequently, the next step is spiritual self-development. Unfortunately, not all develop themselves, because some people think that possession of wealth is the development of humankind. Freedom is the hardest thing for human nature.
Furthermore, people do not want to care, make decision by themselves. It means that most of people do not want to bear responsibility. Thus, there is a prejudice about responsibility. Many people believe that the responsibility is the obligation for a certain action. The duty is when people are forced to do something without desire by external factors or other people. Accordingly, responsibility is own desire of real understanding that things which happens in life. Every human being can be obligatory and at the same time irresponsible. It means that, when every person takes a job position, he/she has certain functions and duties.
For example, a cook in the student cafeteria has own responsibilities and functions. Chef can cook unpalatable or undercooked food, but nevertheless he/she has fulfilled him/her obligation. Hence, everyone can perform own duties and functions, however do own job irresponsibly. Every man is weak or strong in own way, it depends on the person. When a person is born, his soul as glass, clear and transparent. All the good and bad (Grand Inquisitor’s points of human being) traits are laid in man. With time the glass gets dirty and dusty, also the soul become dirty and dusty, but some souls stay in pure condition. Moreover, not all souls can clear themselves from mud and dust. Purity of the soul is an attribute of morally the strongest people. Unfortunately, not everyone is born and can be a strong morally.
That’s why, some people are susceptible to defects such as material things, lies, betrayal, and so on. Development of defects in human soul depends on the external and internal factors. For example, manifestation of soul disadvantages may occur due to bad upbringing. If the parents are not paying enough attention to own child, do not develop in him/her the moral qualities or maybe even the parents themselves do not have any moral character thus being an example to own child. In broad terms, a person can be described as creature possessing the will, the mind, the higher senses, ability to communicate and work.
However, to give a more precise definition of the essence of man is very difficult, because it depends on individual. Grand Inquisitor did good and logical points about human nature, but if these points really describe the essence of every person, then a society, which Grand Inquisitor wanted create, would exist until to the present day. The essence of human nature depends on many factors, for example moral principles, perception and understanding of world, beliefs, aspirations and so on. Consequently, the nature of humanity depends on way of life that every person chooses in life.