A. Background of the Study
Language is one of the most important things in communication and it is used as a tool of communication among nations in all over the world. As an international language, English is very important and has many interrelationship with various aspects of life owned by human being. Studying English is not easy for many Indonesian students since it is a foreign language. Foreign language is the language that is being learned not spoken in the local community. Although English is a foreign language, it is very important to be mastered, because is one of important subjects. It is one of the requirements for Indonesin students for graduating from junior and senior high school. Writing is one of aspects in lerning English. Writing is indeed dificult.it not only transfers information to the readers, but also need complex ways and strategies in transferring. This is done in order not to make misperception and misunderstanding between the readers and writer him/himself. The writer must pay attention in selecting in appropiate language, organizing information, generating ideas, etc. They are crucial aspect since the writer want to be successful in sending message.
Writing is usually has some problems in selecting appropiate vocabulary, organizing information, generating ideas, making grammatical sentences and punctuation, spelling, and mechanices in writing. It cause to the student not interest in learning English. It really need creative efforts from the English teachers to conduct the process of teaching-learning. To be more interesting, then the teacher have to create many ways to eplain the subject so that it can be understood by the student. In SMP N 4 Kalasan, the students get the problems in writing skill. There are students who cannot organize information, generate ideas and make grammatical sentences and punctuation, spelling in writing. There are some important things that are effect in writing activity. In organize an information the student must know what the information from the source.
The student must know the information permutation to arrange a story. From the information based on the resource, the student will get an idea to make a sentence. The ideas focus on the information. It is different with making grammatical sentences and punctuation. In making grammatical sentences, the student must know how to make the sentences well and appropiate with the correct grammatical. And know the base in making a correct sentence. Many efforts have been done in teaching learning writing for the students, one of them is using pictures as the media. In SMP N 4 Kalasan, teacher use the general method or CTL in teaching writing. Besides, the media that used is not interesting. They use story to teach telling the story in writing activity. Sometimes, the teacher give some sentences or title and the student must enlarge on the story. That all are the mannre the teacher to teach English in writing ability to the student, picture story is very interesting as the media to the student in SMPN 4 Kalasan.
The advantages are (1) In this research, the writer uses picture as the media to make learning writing easily, (2) to help the students to develop the idea in writing activity (3) to help the students to arrange the idea based on the sequenced time in the picture stories. Thus they can make interesting stories. Based on the problems identified, the writer conducts an experimental research using picture stories. It is expected that the writer as a teacher will be able to motivate the students to learn the materiala, pay attention to the teacher lesson and make them not to get bored. And that is one of the manners for teacher to teaching English, especially in writing ability. For the reason are in SMP N4 Kalasan, the teacher use monotone method, and that makes the student not interest to learn English.
B. Identification of the Problems
Writing is communicative skill dealing with uman being using the language to communicative through a written language. Writing is used to share ideas, information, and through with others. Writing is an important skillthat supports students in the English mastery beside speaking, listening, and reading. It involves many aspects and the writing competence must be gained through learning process from the simplest to the complex one. The simplest one includes how to form the words together phrases, clauses, and sentences. Then iit will increase to compose the sentences in a good paragraph in which its unity can be achieved when controlling idea of paragraph is clearly stated and where every sentence of paragraph is clearly related to controlling idea. The writer founds some problems of writing learning in SMP N 4 Kalasan. There are the students are not enthusiastic in write some sentences, the students seemed be shy to tart writing something, and they are uninterested in being be able to write sentence paragraph well. Because the students usually get some difficulties in starting their writing.
That will cause many students waste valuable time just for getting started. Besides it, the students have problems to developing the paragraph with a good structure and texture. Because they have not sufficient of linguistic competence, that tend to structural component and rethorical styles that tend to texture and genre which have close relationship with writing activities. Based on the student’s problem above in writing activity, the teacher should a media to teaching English, especially in writing skill.
Media is one of the important component in teaching learning process are needed by the teacher to present his or her materials in the classroom more effective and interesting. The writer will use picture story as media in teaching writing. Picture story can improve the student interest to learning writing skill, can help the students develop their imagination andgive them visualization of the story. The identification of the problems of this topic is how to write the sentences correctly, and how to improve writing ability to make English learning feel enjoyable for students.
C. Limitation of the Problems
From the discussion in the background of the study and the writer needs to limit the broad problem areas in order to have distinct focus. In this study, the writer wants to find out the effectiveness of the picture stories in teaching writing, to the second grade students’ of SMP N4 Kalasan in Academic Year 2012/2013. Based on the identification of the pronlems, the problems of this study will be limited to focus on using picture stories in learning writing of the second grades students’ of MP N 4 Kalasan as a technique to measure the student’s understanding in writing ability. Picture story have make the students give more attention to the teacher and motivate them in teaching and learning process. The writer tries to make an effort to use picture stories to improve the students’ writing, especially in telling story. The use of picture stories are hoped to reduce students’ difficulties in learning writing.
D. Formulation of the Problems
The writer formulates the problems are follows:
1. How is the students’ writing ability taught using picture stories of the Second Grade of Junior High School? 2. How is the students’ writing ability taught without using picture stories of the Second Grade of Junior High School? 3. Is there any significant difference in the writing ability between the students who are taught using picture stories and without using picture stories?
E. Objectives of the Study
Based on the formulation of the problem, the objective of the study as follow: 1. To find out how the students’ writing taught using picture stories of the Second Grade Junior High School. 2. To find out how the students’ writing taught without using picture stories of the Second Grade Junior High School. 3. To find out whether there is significant difference in writing ability between the students who are taught using picture stories and those who are taught without using picture stories.
F. Significance of the Study
The writer hopes that this research can give benefits to:
1. For the teacher
It is hope that this research can be useful for Junior High School teachers in teaching writing, using picture stories as an alternative. By having alternative materials, the English teacher will find it easier to design materials that are appropiate with their students’ need.
2. For the students
By applying this research, it is hoped that the students’ of Junior High School will be more interested in English, especially in writing.it is hoped that they will have more motivation in learning English. Further, hopefully, by using picture stories they can improve their writing achievement.
3. For the other writers
It will give eperience and clear understanding about the process of teaching writing using picture stories and give other writers some early information to conduct firther writer’s on similar topic.
G. Theoretical Review
a. The Definition of Writing skill
Writing is one of important skill taht language learners need to learn as an essential component not only for their academic practice but also later in their professional life. Writing can be defined in various ways. There are some definitions ofwriting propoed by experts. Hadfield (1990: v) says that writing i an artificial activity in a way that speech is not. From the definition of writing above, it can be cocluded that writing is an act of puting the thoughts and feeling into a set of signs or symbols and putting them into paper which can be undestood by the reader. Meanwhile, skill is defined by Webster (1981:2133) skill means technical competences without insight or understanding or the ability for further elaboration or development. To conclude,writing skill is the ability to put the thoughts and feeling into a set of signs or symbols and put them into paper which can be understood by the reader. b. The Process of writing
According to Byrne (1997:177-122), writing process covers the following steps:
1) List possible ideas
One idea very often spark off another. In any case, most people find it helpful to get something down on paper. It is better for starting on blank paper. 2) Select and expand one ideas
Select one idea and then expand it into a draft.
3) Make an outline
It is inhibiting and prevents ideas flowing. This also ensures that nothing important is left out. Making outline help the writer for organizing ideas, especially for identifying and developing an opening and closing paragraph.
4) Write a draft
Writing a draft is key stage in production of a text. Generally, draft should be written quite quickly because it will be reworked and corrected afterwards.
5) Correct and improve draft
In this step, the writers should check for mistakes through a careful reading of what they have written. They should also review the text from the point of view of expression and organization.
6) Write final verion
Rewrite the draft after checking the mistakes.
There are many ways that teachers can assit them to plan for written work, such as following:
(1) Discuss ideas with peers
(2) Draw pictures to generate ideas
(3) Write key thoughts and questions
(5) Record reactions and observations
(6) Take notes
(8) Surf internet websites
(9) Braintorm ideas
(10)Organize information according to type and purpoe of writing (11)And the other
c. Teaching Writing
Teaching writing ha several advantages. Hedge proposed that teaching writing gives opportunity for the students to see how they ate progessing and get immediate feedback from the teacher, and it also allowing the teacher to monitor and diagnose problems (Hedge, 1988: 7) 2. Media in Language Teaching
a. Definition of Media
There are several definitons of media taken from different sources. The first definition is tted by Brinton in Celce-Murcia (2001: 460) that media, related to the language teaching, is that of technological innovations in language teaching,of mechanical paraphernalia, and glossy polished audiovisual aids with all the media anxiety that these can conjure up in teachers. On other words, media here are anything to deliver or present the information or materials. In language teaching, media can motivate students by bringing a lice of real life into the classroom and by presenting language in its more complete communicative context.
Media can also provide a density of information and richnes of cultural input not otherwise possible in the classroom, they can help students’ process information and free the teacher from excessive explaination, and they can provide contextualization and a solid point of departure of classroom activities. From the definition above, it can be concluded that media in language teching are any kind of aids or technological innovations in language teaching which can be used to deliver or present information or materials. Media must be able to engage the students’ attention and motivation. Media must make the students easier in getting the materials and must be interesting.
b. Kinds of Media in Language Learning
According to Celce-Murcia (2001: 462) there are two traditional classifications of media available in language classroom : 1) Non-technical Media
This category present obvious advantages in settings where the electricity is unreliable, technical resources are scare, and funding is limited. Other advantages of this kind of media are their low cost, their availability, their accessibility, and their user friendline. Items that belong in this category typically include: a) Blackboards/ whiteboards/ magnetboards/ flannelboards
b) Flash card/ index card
c) Wall charts, posters, maps, scrolls
d) Board games
e) Mounted pictures/ photos
f) Cartoons/ line drawings
g) Objects/ realia
h) Pamphlet/ brocure/ flyers/ menus
j) Operation manual
l) Newspapers/ magazines.
2) Technical Media
Although these forms of media are costlier and less user friendly than the non-technical media, they carry with them a large degree of ‘psychological reality’ in that they can bring the outside world in all its complexities into the classroom. Items that belong in thi category typically include : a) Record player/ Audiotape player/ recorder/ CD player
e) Overhead projector/ film projector/ slide projector
g) Languange Lab/ Computer Lab/ Multimedia Lab/
h) Self-access center
In considering this group, it is important to make a few further ditinctions, namely, whether the media constitute software (consumable media items) or hardware (equipment), whether the materials are commercially produced or teacher produced.,and whether they are authentic or not. It also needs to consider whether they are being used alone or together with other media in a multimedia environment. Finally, it is a must to consider the purpose for which media are being used, such as to aid in presentation, to provide practice or stimulate communication, or to provide feedback (Celce-Murcia, 2001: 462). Media will support teaching and learning process very much if the teacher uses appropiate media to facilities learning. From the explanation above, it can be seen that picture (picture stories) is included in non technical media, but it can also be multimedia if it is presented together with the other media or using technical media, such as computer, overhead projector, or slide projector.
3. Picture stories
a. Definition of Picture Stories
According to Webster’s Third New International Dictionary (1981: 1711), picture story i defined as a story that consist wholly or chiefly of pictures. While, Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary (2000: 1281) adds that the writer of a picture story has invented it in order to entertain people. This study offers picture story as a medium to teach writing in order to help the students learn English in an enjoyable atmosphere, because the picture story can create an exciting and enjoyable classroom to learn a new thing like a new language.
b. Types of Pictures
Picture can be in everal types and they are used differently. According to Harmer (2001: 134), pictures can be a form of flashcard (small card which can hold up for students to see) large wall pictures (big pictures for everyone to see details), or we cards (small cards which students use in pair group work), photographs, or illustration (typically in a text book). He adds that the pictures of various kinds often used to make more interest. It is clear that pictures are accessible in different shapes, types and color as well. Pictures could be small, medium and they could be in black and white or in color.
4. Teching Writing using Picture Stories
As teching media, picture story can be used in writing class. Inthe writing process picture story gives advantages in the prewriting stage. Prewriting is considered as an important stage in writing process because most students face the difficulty in starting writing process, which is in the generation of ideas. Picture story enables student to identify the elementa of testory through the presented visual. It help the student to learn English about telling the story. Picture stories can use in writing activity. The teacher use picture stories as media in learning English. Teacher can use it as media to teach recount text. Teacher gives the example of the cronological of picture story. Then the students write what the illustration based on the pictures. The student will know what will write appropiate the picture. They will get idea with looking the picture.after that the student can describe or tell from the picture. That is the one of the manners to teach writing.
In addition, a picture can be the basis for not just one task but many, ranging from fairly mechanical controlled composiions, sentence combining exercises, of sequencing of sentences to the writing of original dialogs, letters, reports, or essays. Finally, because everybody likes to look at pictures, their use in the classroom provide a stimulating focus for students’ attention. This technique can be collaborated with the other techniques, for example jigsaw, storytelling, etc. The activities can be done individually or in group, the teacher may divides class into some groups and give them one or two sequential pictures for each group. So if the stories are completed, al pictures which are shared to the students will tell a story about certin theme. This kind of activity can be one of the teaching learning activities in the classroom.
H. Research Type and Research Design
The study employs the experimental method. The study aims to know the use of Picture Story in teaching writing to the student. Sellinger and Sahomy (1989: 136-137) say taht the experimental research is concerned with studying in the effects of specified and controlled treatments given to subjects usually formed in groups. The experimental group of this research is the group in which the treatments is done (a group of students who were taught by using Picture story) and the control group used to control the variable that should be measured (a group students who were taugh without using Picture Story). In this research have two variables. The independent variable is the use of picture stories, and the dependent variable is writing mastery. Since it is an experimental research, there are two groups used in this research: Group A is the one which is taught by using picture stories and group B is the one which is taught without using picture stories. The design can be seen in the figure below. Table 3.1
Experimental group| Pretest| Treatment| Post Test|
Control Group| Pretest| -| Post Test|
I. Population and Sample
The subject of this research was the second grade of SMP N 4 Kalasan. Those are VIII A and VIII C. There are 20 students for each class. One group is to be experiment group and the other is the controll group. The writer chooses the second grade student of SMP N 4 Kalasan as the subject based on some reason. Firstly, these classes are bilingual class, so they have the basic knowledge in English learning. Secondly, they are also passive in writing activity. It seems that some of them did not willingness to study.
The table above shows that the students of the experimental group are taken from class VIII A and the control group is taken from class VIII C of the second grade students of SMP N 4 Kalasan. Both two groups consist of 46 students. The writer takes all of the populations as subject of the research.
J. Research Instrument
The instrument that is used in this research to collect the data is a writing test. Writing skills of the second grade students through observation orientation consist of some factors which are related to the students writing skill. In this research the test is conducted to get a data. Scores are given to acceptable work in each of areas. The following category of scoring composition adapted from Self, n.d. there are:
L. Data Analysis
Data analysis is a process of organizing and summariing the data into pattern or categories in such a way in order to arrive at the result and conclusions of research (Salinger and Shohamy, 1989: 211). There were two kinds of data analyzing technique; descriptive analysis and inferential analysis. In this study, the writer analyzed the data by using descriptive analysis and inferential analysis.
1. Descriptive Analysis
The descriptive analysis is utilied to describe and interpret the data from the sample or the population. The writer in this case calculated the mean, standard deviation, and ideal mean and ideal standard deviation then the writer found out the degree of students’ ability in writing based on the mean and standard deviation.
Mean is one of statistical technique which describes the group based on the avarage score and it is used to find out the avarage score.it is the most efficient measurement of central tendency in the test statistic. The mean formula as follows :
Where : = Mean, X = Surn of source, N = Number of sample
b. Standard Deviation
Standard deviation is the avarage variability of all the score around the mean. The formulation of standard deviation is as follows:
c. Ideal Mean and Ideal Standard Deviation
Ideal mean is to know whether the score follows the normal distribution. The formulation to get ideal mean and ideal standard deviation are as follows : Mi = 60% x X
SDi= 1/4 x Mi
Where : Mi = Ideal Mean
X = The maximum possible score
SDi = Ideal standard deviation
To analye the data of writing ability, the data of mean and standard deviation are used to classifybthe students’ score (Nurgiyanto, 2001:365). The parameter to analyze the data of writing ability categorized such as; very good, good, fair, poor, and vry poor. The following table describes the formula of conversion category of five scale.
2. Inferential Statistic
Inferential statistic is a statistic which is used to make summaries about population orparameter based on the data from research sample. This analysis is intended to know whether there was a positive and significant relationship between picture stories techniques and paragraph writing ability. Therefore, the writer used inferential analysis which consist of three testing, such as; test of normality, test of homogenity, and hypothesis testing.
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Harmer, Jeremy. 2001. How to Teach English. England: Longman
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