sample
Haven't found the Essay You Want?
GET YOUR CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE
For Only $12.90/page

The Effectiveness of Distilled Water Essay

Chapter I

Introduction

This chapter includes the prevailing problem situation based on observations. also, the objectives, scope and limitation, significance of the study, definition of terms and conceptual framework are included.

I. Background of the study

Students in various parts of the Dasmariñas are finding difficulties in procuring proper and economical equipment for their experiments and lessons in the field of science, particularly in Chemistry and in Biology. Examples of those equipment include acid-base indicators like Litmus papers and the likes. These substances are used to indicate, if not measure the acidity and the basicity of a substance under question. For example, in the field of Biology, Litmus paper is used to find or determine the pH of urine, blood, and other liquids secreted by the body to determine diseases and diagnose those ailments. In addition, the term “Litmus test” has been defined as “a single factor that could affect an outcome” in the urban dictionary.

An acid-base indicator is a weak acid or a weak base. The undissociated form of the indicator is a different color than the iogenic form of the indicator. An indicator does not change color from pure acid to pure alkaline at specific hydrogen ion concentration, but rather, color change occurs over a range of hydrogen ion concentrations. This range is termed the color change interval. It is expressed as a pH range.

Colors of acid-base indicators change when exposed to either acidic or basic substances. Acidic substances rank one to six in the pH scale; neutral substances rank seven; and basic substances rank eight to 14. That means that substances which rank one in the pH scale are the most acidic while those substances which rank 14 are the most basic.

Numerous plants and flowers contain substances which change color in order to indicate pH levels in a sample to be tested. (Helmenstine, 2009; Johnsons, 2009; Rhodium, 2009; Sonawane et al, 2009) These plants change color when they come into contact with other acids and bases because they themselves are either acids or bases. Anthocyanins are purplish-red pigments found in many fruits and vegetables such as blueberries, beets, red cabbage, eggplants and the likes. These pigments are water-soluble and turn pink in acidic solutions. The losing and gaining electrons is accounted for this color change. (Lynn Bry, 1997) In contrast, Anthocyanins change to green in mildly alkaline substances and change to yellow in very alkaline solutions. (Sonawane L.V., 2007)

Eggplant (Solanum melongena) is a plant of the family Solanaceae (also known as the nightshades) and genus Solanum. It bears a fruitof the same name, commonly used in cooking. The stem is often spiny. The flowers are white to purple, with a five-lobedcorolla and yellow stamens. The fruit is fleshy, has a meaty texture, and is less than 3 cm (1.2 in) in diameter on wild plants, but much larger in cultivated forms. The fruit is botanically classified as a berry, and contains numerous small, soft seeds, which are edible, but have a bitter taste because they contain nicotinoid alkaloids; this is unsurprising as it is a close relative of tobacco. Distilled water is water that has many of its impurities removed through distillation. Distilled water is also commonly used to top off lead acid batteries used in cars and trucks. The presence of other ions commonly found in tap water will cause a drastic reduction in an automobile’s battery lifespan.

Some people use distilled water for household aquariums because it lacks the chemicals found in tap water supplies. It is important to supplement distilled water when using it for fish keeping; it is too pure to sustain proper chemistry to support an aquarium ecosystem. Ethanol, also called ethyl alcohol, pure alcohol, grain alcohol, or drinking alcohol, is a volatile, flammable, colorless liquid. It is a psychoactive drug and one of the oldest recreational drugs. Best known as the type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages, it is also used in thermometers, as a solvent, and as a fuel. Due to these data gathered by the researchers, they came up with the study entitled “THE EFFECTIVENESS OF DISTILLED WATER AND ETHANOL SOLUTION AS SOLVENTS IN THE PRODUCTION OF LIQUID ACID-BASE INDICATOR USING EGGPLANT (Solanum melongena) PEELINGS AND CAMOTE (Ipomoea batatas) TOPS”.

II. Statement of the Problem

Generally, the study aims to test the effectiveness of distilled water and ethanol solution as solvents in the production of liquid acid-base indicator using Eggplant Peelings and Camote Tops. Specifically, the study aims to answer the following questions: 1. Will the use of distilled water and ethanol solution as solvents in the production of liquid acid-base indicator using Eggplant Peelings and Camote Tops affect the acid-base indicator in terms of:

2.1 Color change?

2.2 Intensity of color?

2. Is there any significant difference between the use of distilled water and ethanol solution as solvents in the production of liquid acid-base indicator using Eggplant Peelings and Camote Tops in terms of :

3.3 Color change?

3.4 Intensity of color?

III. Statement of the Hypothesis

Objective: To determine the significant difference between the use of distilled water and ethanol solution as solvents in the production of liquid acid-base indicator using Eggplant Peelings and Camote Tops.

Null Hypothesis

There is no significant difference between the use of distilled water and ethanol solution as solvents in the production of liquid acid-base indicator using Eggplant Peelings and Camote Tops in terms of:

1.1 Color change?
1.2 Intensity of color?

IV. Significance of the Study:

This study is to benefit the following:
Chemists. For them to be able to use a high quality acid-base indicator which is low priced. Students.For them to be able to save money from buying expensive acid-base indicators when conducting experiments. Future Researchers. The study will serve as a basis for experimentation for those who are interested in the field of chemistry. It can serve as a guide for future studies as they search for more indigenous plants to conduct experiments on.

V. Scope and Limitations:

The study entitled “THE EFFECTIVENESS OF DISTILLED WATER AND ETHANOL SOLUTION AS SOLVENTS IN THE PRODUCTION OF LIQUID ACID-BASE INDICATOR USING EGGPLANT (Solanum melongena) PEELINGS AND CAMOTE (Ipomoea batatas) TOPS” was conducted in JICA Laboratory at Dasmariñas National High School, Burol I Congressional Road, City of Dasmariñas .

Tests involving different acids and bases were used to test the Eggplant peelings and Camote tops acid-base indicator . There were four types of acids and bases used: weak acid, Vinegar (Acetic acid); weak base, Ammonia; strong acid, Muriatic Acid (Hydrochloric acid); strong base, Liquid bleach (Sodium hypochlorite). Glass containers were used instead of plastic containers to avoid misleading chemical reactions. In regard with the respondents used, the researchers selected 30 students presently studying chemistry, so that there would not be any biases in assessing the reactions.

Respondents were needed to assess the Eggplant peelings and Camote tops acid-base indicator using a sensory evaluation sheet. The visual sensory route will be the basis for judgment. The study covers only the determination of the effectiveness of distilled water and ethanol solution as solvents in the production of liquid acid-base indicator using Eggplant peelings and Camote tops. The researchers compared only the different treatments. The researchers did not compare the products with commercial acid-base indicator.

VI. Definition of Terms:

Distilled water. Water that has many of its impurities removed through distillation. Ethanol solution. a colorless volatile flammable liquid that is the intoxicating agent in liquors and is also used as a solvent and in fuel Solvent. A substance in which another substance is dissolved, forming a solution. Acid-base indicator. Is a dye that changes into a different color depending on whether it is in acid or in base.

VII. Conceptual Framework:

Processes

Preparation of materials and equipment

Weighing and washing of the leaves/peelings

Chopping and boiling of leaves/peelings in 100 mL of the two different solvents

Transferring of the decocotions in separate test tubes

Testing the treatments by subjecting them into the acid and base

Evaluation of the product through sensory evaluation test

Input
Eggplant peelings and Camote tops contains Anthocyanins

Anthocyanins are the pigments from leaves which change color when subjected to different pH standards.

Output
Color change and Intensity of Color of the liquid acid-base indicator are the
parameters to be measured.

Paradigm:
Since the Eggplant peelings and Camote tops contain Anthocyanin or a pigment from leaves which change color when subjected to different pH standards, it was utilized by the researchers which are assumed to be effective in producing liquid acid-base indicator. The color change and intensity of color are the parameters to be measured.

Chapter II

Review of Related Literature and Studies
This chapter presents the literature and related studies which have direct bearing on the study in order to support and guide the researchers to get accurate and reliable results. It also discusses the potential, the effectiveness, and the relevance of Eggplant Peelings and Camote Tops in the production of liquid acid-base indicators.

Eggplant Peelings

Elsevier (2008) stated that tartaric and malic acid solutions were tested to extract anthocyanins from eggplant peel by a discontinuous process to obtain a natural red colorant. Extraction optimization was carried out, using different solvents, acid concentration, temperature, time of extraction and solvent-to-solid ratio as independent variables. Tartaric acid was more efficient than malic acid in both extraction yield and rate. Comparative tests were carried out using acidified ethanol as solvent.

Delphinidin-3-rutinoside was extracted and identified as the major anthocyanin in eggplant peel. Concentration of different extracts from eggplant peel was carried out using a methacrylic food grade resin which is the best performing resin to obtain concentrated extracts. (www.sciencedirect.com) The peelings of Eggplant, known as Solanum melongenais also considered as one of the easiest plant to yield in our country. It also helps to block the formation of free radicals and is also a source of folic acid and potassium. It consist abundant amount of anthocyanin which is important in Ph indicator production. (Cimino, Francesco, 2008)

Camote Tops

The sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is a dicotyledonous plant that belongs to the family Convolvulaceae. Its large, starchy, sweet-tasting,tuberous roots are an important root vegetable. The young leaves and shoots are sometimes eaten as greens. Of the approximately 50 generaand more than 1,000 species of Convolvulaceae, I. batatas is the only crop plant of major importance—some others are used locally, but many are actually poisonous. Leaves have a high content of polyphenolics – anthocyanins and phenolic acids, with at least 15 biologically active anthocyanins with medicinal value. Polyphenols have physiologic functions, radical scavenging activity, antimutagenic, anticancer, antidiabetes and antibacterial activity in vitro and vivo.Study isolated four compounds: citrusin C, caffeic acid, 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid and 1, 2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboylic acid. (www.stuartxchange.org/Kamote)

Acid-Base Indicators

David (2010) stated that PH indicators are widely used as an equipment for students and scientists experimentations and lessons in the different fields of Science such as Biology and Chemistry. They are used to indicate, if not measure the acidity and the basicity of a substance under question. The undissociated form of the indicator is a different color than the iogenic form of the indicator. An Indicator does not change color from pure acid to pure alkaline at specific hydrogen ion concentration, but rather, color change occurs over a range of hydrogen ion concentrations. It is expressed as a pH range.

pH indicator is a halochromic chemical compound that is added in small amounts to a solution so that the pH (acidity or basicity) of the solution can be determined visually. Hence a pH indicator is a chemical detector for hydronium ions (H3O+) or hydrogen ions (H+) in the Arrhenius model. Normally, the indicator causes the colour of the solution to change depending on the pH. At 25 °C, considered the standard temperature, the pH value of a neutral solution is 7.0. Solutions with a pH value below 7.0 are considered acidic, whereas solutionswith pH value above 7.0 are basic. As most naturally occurring organic compounds are weak protolytes, carboxylic acids and amines, pH indicators find many applications in biology and analytical chemistry. Moreover, pH indicators form one of the three main types of indicator compounds used in chemical analysis. For the quantitative analysis of metal cations, the use ofcomplexometric indicators is preferred, whereas the third compound class, the redox indicators, are used in titrations involving a redox reaction as the basis of the analysis. (www.elmhurst.edu.com)

Anthocyanin

Anthocyanin pigments are responsible for the red, purple, and blue colors of many fruits, vegetables, cereal grains, and flowers. They have long been the subject of investigation by botanists and plant physiologists because of their roles as pollination attractants and phytoprotective agents. They have also been very useful in taxonomic studies. Even Linus Pauling was interested in related compounds called anthocyanidins—he discussed their chemical structure to illustrate the use of resonance in understanding structural problems in a 1939 paper. Food scientists and horticulturists continue to study these compounds because of their obvious importance to the color quality of fresh and processed fruits and vegetables. Today, interest in anthocyanin pigments has intensified because of their possible health benefits as dietary antioxidants. Over 300 structurally distinct anthocyanins have been identified in nature. Anthocyanins are one class of flavonoid compounds, which are widely distributed plant polyphenols. Flavonols, flavan-3-ols, flavones, flavanones, and flavanonols are additional classes of flavonoids that differ in their oxidation state from the anthocyanins. Solutions of these compounds are colorless or pale yellow.

Other phenolic compounds that comprise part of our diet include phenolic acids and their esters, such as chlorogenic acid and polymeric tannins. At least 5,000 naturally occurring polyphenolics have been identified, including over 2,000 flavonoids. The term polyphenolics is increasingly being used to describe phenolic-based compounds having similar solubility properties that are analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The polyphenolic profile of fruit juices is likely to include flavonols, free and esterified phenolic acids, and procyanidins. Polyphenolics contribute to food and beverage color by serving as substrates for an enzyme to produce brown pigments. The procyanidins and condensed tannins provide astringency and bitterness in tea and wine. (Wrolstand,2001) Anthocyanins are purplish-red pigments found in many fruits and vegetables such as blueberries, beets, red cabbage and the likes. These pigments are water-soluble and turn pink in acidic solutions. The losing and gaining electrons is accounted for this color change. (Lynn Bry, 1997)

In contrast, Anthocyanins change to green in mildly alkaline substances and change to yellow in very alkaline solutions. (Sonawane L.V., 2007) Many plants or plant parts contain chemicals from the naturally-colored anthocyanin family of compounds. They are red in acidic solutions and blue in basic. Anthocyanins can be extracted with water or other solvents from a multitude of colored plants or plant parts, including from leaves (red cabbage); flowers (geranium, poppy, or rose petals); berries (blueberries, blackcurrant); and stems (rhubarb). Extracting anthocyanins from household plants, especially red cabbage, to form a crude pH indicator is a popular introductory chemistry demonstration. A substance must consist an anthocyanin in order to become an effective Ph indicator.

Different plants and flowers contain substances which change color in order to indicate pH levels in a sample to be tested. (Helmenstine, 2009; Johnsons, 2009; Rhodium, 2009; Sonawane et al, 2009) These plants change color when they come into contact with other acids and bases because they themselves are either acids or bases. An experiment by R.M. Wilsatter just before the outbreak of World War I proved that the blue and red pigments of flowers contained molecules that are based on cyanidin. Some of those cyanidin-based pH indicators are Alizarin, Cochineal, Curcumin, Esculin, Anthocyanin, Litmus and Logwood. (Magdum C.S., 2007; Sonawane L.V., 2007)

The thesis study “Feasibility of Eggplant (Solanum melongena) Peelings Extract as a pH Indicator” dealt with extracting the anthocyanin of the eggplant peels by boiling it in distilled water. The extract was then tested on certain test chemicals, corresponding to certain pH levels. Success in this study will greatly help instruction involving pH because of the simple procedure and accessibility and availability of eggplants. (Chu, Go, Pena, 2009)

Although acid-base indicators are made from natural ingredients, many of the scientists fail to see the viable raw materials available in the country. As a result of this deficiency, scientists and teachers spend a large amount of money buying and investing for these equipments. This and other problems paved the way for the researchers to conduct a study to find the potential of Eggplant peelings and Camote tops in the production of liquid acid-base indicators.

Chapter III
Methodology

In this chapter, technical specifications, quantities and source of preparation for all materials used were given. Specifically built equipment used in the study was also described. The sequence of experiment or set of observations were also described in detail.

I. Method of research used

The method of research used in the study is the experimental method. It is a procedure involving the control or manipulation of conditions for studying effects of various treatments applied to numbers of different samples as defined by Zulueta and Costales Jr. (2003). An experimental research therefore consists of manipulating or experimental variable under highly controlled conditions to determine how and why a particular event occurs. Since the investigation is concerned with the potential of Eggplant peelings and Camote tops as liquid acid-base indicator, the experimental method of research will be the most appropriate method to be used.

This study is concerned in investigating and observing the different setups which are affected by certain variables. Observation is the key point in solving its problems, which is the foundation of an experimental research. Keen observation and accurate and precise gathering of data is needed in interpreting and analyzing its results. In this study, reaction time and the longevity of the reaction is observed and measured. This test includes connecting and analyzing the ability of the researchers to explain the results with researching ability while the experimental method was used.

II. Materials and Equipment

The following materials and equipment were used to make the liquid acid-base indicator: 200g of Eggplant peelings, 200g of Camote tops, 200 mL distilled water and 200 mL of 70% ethanol solution; 60 mL of the following acid and base: Vinegar (Acetic acid) and Liquid bleach (Sodium hydroxide).

A small weighing scale (in grams) was used to weigh the leaves and peelings. A small basin was needed for the washing of the leaves and peelings. A knife and a chopping board were used to chop the leaves into small pieces.

In boiling, a 150 mL beaker and bunsen burner were needed. Six empty glass containers were used to hold the different treatments as well as the vinegar and liquid bleach. Eight test tubes were utilized to each contain 20 mL of acid and base. A dropper was needed in the testing of the product.

III. General procedure

The materials and equipment were prepared before conducting the study. One hundred grams of leaves/peelings were weighed using a small weighing scale. The leaves/peelings were placed and washed in a small basin. After washing, the leaves/peelings were chopped into small pieces using the knife and chopping board. The leaves were boiled in a 150mL-beaker with 100mL distilled water/100mL of 70% ethanol solution using a bunsen burner. The decoction was then transferred in different test tubes. To test the treatments, 2.5 mL of each treatment were dropped in each test tube containing 20 mL of the acid and base. 30 respondents consisting of 3rd year students were asked to evaluate the color change.

IV. Application of Treatments

For Treatment 1, one hundred grams of Eggplant peelings were weighed using a small weighing scale. The peelings were placed and washed in a small basin. After washing, the peelings were chopped into small pieces using the knife and chopping board. The peelings were boiled in a 150mL-beaker with 100mL distilled water using a bunsen burner. The decoction was transferred in different test tubes. For Treatment 2, one hundred grams of Eggplant peelings were weighed using a small weighing scale. The peelings were placed and washed in a small basin. After washing, the peelings were chopped into small pieces using the knife and chopping board. The peelings were boiled in a 150mL-beaker with 100mL of 70% ethanol solution using a bunsen burner. The decoction was transferred in different test tubes.

For Treatment 3, one hundred grams of Camote tops were weighed using a small weighing scale. The peelings were placed and washed in a small basin. After washing, the peelings were chopped into small pieces using the knife and chopping board. The peelings were boiled in a 150mL-beaker with 100mL distilled water using a bunsen burner. The decoction was transferred in different test tubes. For Treatment 4, one hundred grams of Camote tops were weighed using a small weighing scale. The peelings were placed and washed in a small basin. After washing, the peelings were chopped into small pieces using the knife and chopping board. The peelings were boiled in a 150mL-beaker with 100mL of 70% ethanol solution using a bunsen burner. The decoction was transferred in different test tubes.

VI. Statistics to be Used

Friedman Test was used to determine the effectiveness of distilled water and ethanol solution as solvents in the production of acid-base indicator using Eggplant peelings and Camote tops. The study is an experiment which yields qualitative responses which can either be ranked or categorized. These measurements defy quantification like acceptability of a product. It is usedwhen comparing more than two populations or treatments.

Since there are four treatments and the study aims to determine the acceptability of acid-base indicator in terms of color change and intensity of color, the Friedman test was used. The formula in solving for the Friedman test statistic is:

Fr=12bt(t+1)j=1Tj2-3b(t+1)


Essay Topics:


Sorry, but copying text is forbidden on this website. If you need this or any other sample, we can send it to you via email. Please, specify your valid email address

We can't stand spam as much as you do No, thanks. I prefer suffering on my own