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The Displacement Reactions Essay

Purpose: to see how displacement reaction works with different chemicals and what chemical has more reactivity series then other

Hypothesis:

Iron + Copper Sulfate: Iron will displace copper because it is more reactive and it is going to end up as Iron Sulphide + Copper Copper + Silver Nitrate: Copper will displace Silver because it is more reactive and it is going to end up as Copper Nitride + Magnesium + Copper oxide: Magnesium will displace Copper because it is more reactive. Aluminum + Iron Oxide: Aluminum will displace Iron because it is more reactive. Zinc + Hydrochloric acid: Zinc will replace Hydrogen because it is more reactive. Copper + Hydrochloric Acid: Copper will not displace Hydrogen because copper is more reactive. Magnesium + Hydrochloric acid: Magnesium will displace Hydrogen because it is more reactive and end up as Magnesium Chloride + Hydrogen. Sodium + Hydrochloric acid: Sodium will displace Hydrogen because it is more reactive and end up as Sodium Chloride + Hydrogen.

Apparatus: Test Tube, Goggles, Iron nail, Copper Wire, Silver Nitrate, Hydrochloric Acid, Magnet, Zinc, Magnesium, Sodium, Aluminum

Procedure:

Iron + Copper Sulfate: Obtain a test tube and fill it with Copper Sulfate till its half full. place iron nail in the test tube carefully and wait for 10 minutes Copper + Silver Nitrate: Obtain a test tube place the copper wire inside it carefully then put Silver Nitrate till it is half way filled. Wait for 10 minutes and observe what happens Magnesium + Copper oxide: Obtain a small beaker put some magnesium and copper in the beaker then carefully turn on the heating stand. Then place the beaker under the heating stand make sure to stand away from it and record observation frequently. Aluminum + Iron Oxide: make a mixture of Aluminum and iron oxide. Obtain a 200 ml beaker and place the mixture inside it. Carefully place the Iron nail in the beaker. Turn on the heating stand and heat the Iron.

Move away from it and observe what happens. Zinc + Hydrochloric acid: Obtain a test tube and fill it with Hydrochloric acid till its half way filled. Place a thin sheet of Zinc in the test tube and observe what happens. Copper + Hydrochloric Acid: Obtain a test tube and fill it with Hydrochloric acid till its half way filled. Then carefully place a piece of Copper in the test tube and observe what happens Magnesium + Hydrochloric acid: Obtain a test tube and fill it with Hydrochloric acid till its half way filled. Then carefully put a piece of Magnesium in the test tube and observe what happens Sodium + Hydrochloric acid: Obtain a test tube and fill it with Hydrochloric acid till its half way filled. Then carefully put a piece of sodium in the test tube and observe what happens.

Observation

Table A

|NAME |BEFORE EXPERIMENT |DURING THE EXPERIMENT |AFTER THE EXPERIMENT | |Zinc + Hydrochloric acid: |Zinc: colour- gray |Started to bubble up and hydrogen |Piece of Zinc was left behind but it looked | | |feels like rough rock |gas rise up |like smooth piece of rock now. Hydrogen gas | | |hydrochloric acid: colour- dark blue| |came out of the test tube when we opened it | |Copper + Hydrochloric acid |Copper: Shiny dark yellowish colour |The Copper slowly went to the |The copper got shinier and the dark blue | | |Hydrochloric acid: Dark blue colour |bottom and as it went down the |hydrochloric acid change to transparent | | | |blue colour changed to aqua with a| | | | |touch of green with red around the| | | | |copper | | |Magnesium + Hydrochloric acid | Rough sheet of Magnesium |Bubbles went up with the sound of |Hydrogen gas was coming out when we opened | | |colour: gray |snap and in less than 10 sec the |the test tube | | |hydrochloric acid: dark blue |Magnesium sheet disappeared | | |Sodium + Hydrochloric acid |A really rough piece of rock |In less than 2 sec the beaker |Pieces of the beaker was left in the end | | |Colour: gray |broke with the noise of glass |with hydrochloric acid all over the place | | |Hydrochloric acid: dark blue |shattering | |

TABLE B

|NAME |BEFORE EXPERIMENT |DURING THE EXPERIMENT |AFTER THE EXPERIMENT | |Iron + Copper Sulfate |Iron nail: dark gray |slowly iron displaces some of the |After 10 minutes there is some Copper on| | |Copper Sulfate: dark blue |Copper |the Iron nail because it is more | | | | |reactive then copper | |Copper + Silver Nitrate |Silver Nitrate: colour transparent |Slowly copper displaces silver |All the fuss from the Copper wire was | | |Copper: dark yellow | |displaced by silver from Nitrogen | |Magnesium + Copper Oxide |Magnesium: Black |The mixture of Magnesium and Copper is |Since both of the beaker blew up there | | |Copper: grayish |in the small beaker on the top of |was nothing but black pieces and broken | | | |heating stand and after few seconds |glass | | | |both of the beakers blew up | | |Aluminum + Iron Oxide |In the beaker the colour of aluminum |Put the nail in the small beaker and |After few minutes there was an explosion| | |was dark brownish nail gray colour |carefully heat it up and move away from|and when we put magnet in the beaker | | | |it |there are iron balls which sticks to it |

Analysis:
1) Part A:
1. Zn(s)+2HCl(g)( ZnCl2(s)+ 2H(g)
2. Cu(s)+2HCl(g) ( CuCl2(s)+2H(g)
3. Mg(s)+2HCl(g)( MgCl2(aq)+2H(g)
4. Na(s)+2HCl(g) ( NaCl2(s)+ 2H(g)
Part B:
1. Fe(s)+CuS2(aq) (FeS2(aq) + Cu(s)
2. Cu(s)+ 2AgNO3(s) ( Cu(NO3)2(s)+ 2Ag(s)
3. Mg(s)+ CuO2(s) ( MgO2 (s)+ Cu(s)
4. Al(s)+ FeO2(s)( AlO2(s)+Fe(s)

2) Part B:

1. Iron is more reactive then Copper that’s why it replaced Copper in the reaction and that’s how Iron Sulphate was produce 2. Copper is more reactive then Silver therefore it replaces Silver in the reaction and that is how Copper Nitride is produce 3. Magnesium is more reactive then Copper that’s why it replaced copper in the reaction and that’s how Magnesium Oxide is produce 4. Aluminum is more reactive then Iron therefore it replaces Iron in the reaction and that is how Aluminum Oxide is produced

3)

4) The purpose of the Matchstick in Part A was to see what gas was coming out of the test tube, so if it was oxygen the Matchstick would still be burning but since it was Hydrogen it stopped burning right away. And that’s how we know what gas was coming out of test tube.

Discussion:

4) In question 3 the image of reactivity series shows how each element is more or less reactive then other and also it shows how an element will displace with other element. 5) No there is no discrepancies between my series and the one shown in the textbook because both of these series shown which element is least reactive and which elements are most reactive. The only difference is that in the textbook it shows all the elements when in my series it only shows the 8 elements that I used in the experiment. 6) As you go across the periodic table the reactivity series decreases excluding Hydrogen.

Conclusion:

This experiment basically demonstrated how reactivity series work. Also in this experiment different elements were tested with different chemicals to see how displacement reactions work. And yes most of my hypotheses were correct.


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