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The Development of Events and Their Meaning in Society Essay

This essay has been constructed with the aim of looking at the development of events whilst dealing with the nature and importance of events, in addition this essay will be touching on some of the historical areas which helped to make events an industry today, and the emergence of the events industry in the United Kingdom. The intention of this essay is to examine the impacts of events in society whilst briefly touching and including their social/cultural, physical/environmental, political/ tourism and economic impacts What Is an ‘Event’

The Birth of the events Industry started from as early as 1982 here in the UK (Woods) An Event, life itself is an event! But indeed What are events you may ask yourself as according to chambers dictionary(1998 p.560) Events Management G Bowdin pg 14 “An Event is anything which happens; result; any incidence or occurrence especially a memorable one; contingency or possibility of occurrence; an item in a programme (of sports, etc); a type of horse-riding competition, often held over three days (three-day event), consisting of three sections, i.e dressage, cross-country riding and showjumping; fortune or fate (obs); an organised activity at a particular venue, eg for sales promotion, fundraising.”

FIFA and the racing cars, a recent event which occurred on the 29th May 2011 would have been defined as a special event according to Bowdin, G. Events management the attributes of special events ‘creation of specialness’ uniqueness, quality, authenticity, tradition, hospitality, theme and symbolism the symbolism here in regards to the Royal wedding could be identified in the type of material used in Kate’s wedding dress receiving the tile of duchess from the queen indeed is of traditional element the ring his mother Diana used when she married Charles, the tiara loaned to Kate by the Queen and the public crowd that were able to participate in the celebrations, being televised worldwide the exact same occurrence took place for Princess Diana and Charles July 29th 1981: Charles and Diana married in front Crowds of 600,000 people filling the streets of London to catch a glimpse of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer on their wedding day.(Special Event)

The couple were married at St Paul’s Cathedral before an invited congregation of 3,500 and an estimated global TV audience of 750 million – making it the most popular programme ever broadcast. Britons enjoyed a national holiday to mark the occasion. This clearly outlines the defines of Jago & Shaw(1998,p.28) there are six core attributes, Attract tourists/ tourism development, Event of limited duration, one off or infrequent occurrence , Raises the awareness, image or profile of a region, Offer social experience, Out of the ordinary, The royal wedding has shown precedence in all these areas. .” However bearing this in mind there are different types of events and ways of categorizing and grouping these events, this includes taking into consideration their size and scale see figure.

Why are Events Important!

“Events have proved to be a valuable catalyst for cultural social and economic development”. It has become unavoidably an industry capable of generating considerable income as it exists in most times and most societies government cannot ignore events being a useful strategy for economic development, nation building, destination marketing and image promotion giving marvellous rise in array of events on almost every subject and theme imaginable. As they spill out of newspapers to TV screens occupying and enriching our lives. Following the World Wars, the promotion of popular celebration became a thriving sector of the new industrial economy. The UK has a rich tradition of rituals and ceremonies extended over thousands of years the tradition influenced by changes within society, including industrialization, urbanization, and the increasing multicultural population; developing immigration after the war brought settlers with own customs which have now become part of Britain’s heritage. The lord Mayor’s Show provides an example of this – originating from 1215 when king john granted a Charter confirming the citizens of London’s right to choose their own mayor with 5000 participants, 2000 military personal etc. (Lord Mayor’s Show, 2005b).( Bowdin Events Management 2006)

The events in UK encourage contact between European countries 1882 Hopping Newcastle one of the biggest fairs. 1877 Silver jubilee as the Royal Events encourage patriotic behaviour ultimately leading to UK position as an International Tourist destination attracting millions each year, these have in the 20th century now become part of everyday life. The significance of events was established In 1915, the British Government had then realised the value of exhibitions (Events industry) to the country and held the first British Industries fair at the royal Agricultural Hall (now the Business Design Centre),London. Situated in fashionable Islington, the Business Design Centre is now London’s most stylish exhibition venue, playing host to over 80 exhibitions and 250 conferences every year.

The Business Design Centre is also the permanent home to over 100 businesses who occupy the offices & showrooms. Today the BDC Conference Centre attracts in excess of half a million visitors every year. (Bowdin Pg8.Event.Management 2006) As mentioned earlier in there being different categories or types of events, The public Events sector would be those such as cultural, festivals, sporting, tourism, and corporate events while the Business events sector focuses on including meetings, incentives, conventions and exhibitions this is one of the fastest growing areas of events. Potential Negative Impacts of Events in Society

Events have a range of impacts both negative and positive on their host, communities and stakeholders some of the factors considered in the Events Industry have been the attractions pools and numbers of tourists as an area of external customers the environmental impacts are just one of many as the increase in numbers of tourist ultimately cause increase in noise pollution, consumption of energy resources, visual intrusion, waste and encroachment, lack of respect for locals, substance abuse, gate crashers which worry security and increase in criminal activity. The most important in these factors is energy consumption resulting in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and tourism also contributes to global warming. There is a growing body of literature which confirms that transport is a dominant contributor to visitor attraction environmental impacts.

Potential Positive Impacts of Events in Society

The Olympics is due 2012 and preparations already made and observed as one of the many advantages of Olympics, social and cultural impacts of pride through celebration and or participation and community events the G8 summit (Live 8,2005) with three billion people worldwide in participation clearly demonstrated the positive impact another example through the Olympics would be housing, and this example being one of the long-term benefits of the games as it is offering the provision of 5,000 homes following the conversion of the Olympic Village after the games. However the cost of housing may increase as a result of the regeneration of the area, possibly forcing local poorer families out of their homes. Although with London’s large economy, there is some protection from acute price rises during the Games. Another to highlight in all of this redevelopment would be transport improvements, in order to transport the thousands of spectators, athletes, officials and media to the games, the transport links to the east of London are going to be upgraded. These improvements include……….. http://olympics.pthimon.co.uk/londonadv.htm

The different challenges faced by venues and event

Here In the extracts following, are set to highlight the different challenges that were faced by the millennium dome, as a huge venture by which considerable funding was sourced by the means of public funds and displaying that by means of correct management function, such as those directly addressed by the New owner the O2 were able to transform a white elephant. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Millennium_Dome

This article is about the Dome’s use as a Millennium exhibition. For its post-redevelopment use as an entertainment district, see The O2 (London). The Millennium Dome was closed in 2000 after failing to draw in a forecast 12 million visitors and costing around £800m in state funds. A deal was drawn up where the site would be leased to MDL, but ultimately remain in public ownership.

The Millennium Dome, colloquially referred to simply as The Dome, is the original name of a large dome-shaped building, originally used to house the Millennium Experience, a major exhibition celebrating the beginning of the third millennium. The exhibition was opened to the public from 1 January – 31 December 2000. The project and exhibition was the subject of considerable political controversy as it failed to attract the number of visitors anticipated, with recurring financial problems. All of the original exhibition and associated complex has since been demolished. The dome still exists, and it is now a key exterior feature of The O2.

Despite the Temporary re-openings, on-going debate about the dome’s future use, the dome opened again during December 2003 for the Winter Wonderland experience. It also served as the venue for a number of free music festivals organised by the Mayor of London under the “Respect” banner. Over the 2004 Christmas period, part of the main dome was used as a shelter for the homeless and others in need, organised by the charity Crisis after superseding the London Arena, which had previously hosted the event. In 2005, when work began for the redevelopment of the Dome, the London Arena hosted the event again.

The aftermath

It was, however, still of interest to the press, the government’s difficulties in selling the Dome being the subject of much critical comment. The amount spent on maintaining the closed building was also criticised. After it had closed, Lord Falconer reported that The Dome was costing over £1 million per month to maintain. In December 2001, it was announced that Meridian Delta Ltd. had been chosen by the government to develop the Dome as a sports and entertainment centre, and to develop housing, shops and offices on 150 acres (0.6 km2) of surrounding land. It is also hoped to relocate some of London’s tertiary education establishments to the site Meridian Delta is backed by the American billionaire Philip Anschutz, who has interests in oil, railways, and telecommunications, as well as a string of sports-related investments.

Redevelopment and rebranding as The O2

(According to Judy Allen et al ‘exposure –Internal and External Internal exposure is exposure within your company, your industry and your circle of existing suppliers and customers. External exposure is related to brand awareness and attracting the attention of the world at large in a favourable way to build name recognition and create a centre of attention to draw new clients and business opportunities to your company. The dome was publicly renamed as The O2 on 31 May 2005, in a £6 million-per-year deal with telecommunications company O2. This announcement, which presaged a major redevelopment of the site that retained little beyond the shell of the dome, gave publicity to the dome’s transition into an entertainment district including an indoor arena, a music club, a cinema, an exhibition space and bars and restaurants. This redevelopment was undertaken by the dome’s new owners, the Anschutz Entertainment Group, to a design by HOK SVE and Buro Happold. It cost £600 million, and the resulting venue opened to the public on 24 June 2007, with a concert by rock band Bon Jovi.

Due to so much attention being drawn to the public eye there were inevitably huge effects on political careers and Issues related to the Dome damaged Peter Mandelson’s and John Prescott’s political careers. The scheme was seen as an early example of what some saw as Tony Blair’s often excessive optimism, who stated at the Dome’s opening: “In the Dome we have a creation that, I believe, will truly be a beacon to the world”. The fact that Mandelson’s grandfather was Herbert Morrison who as a minister had been involved with the Festival of Britain often was drawn on for negative comparisons. http://news.sky.com/skynews/Home/Business/O2-Arena-For-Sale-London-Music-Venue-For-Millennium-Dome-Lease-Open-To-Bidders/Article/200902215220164

The lease on the former Millennium Dome is being marketed by landlord Meridian Delta Dome Limited (MDDL) and is expected to fetch somewhere in the region of £35m. There is £1.5m rental Income from AEG for The O2. “Any sale of the MDL lease will not affect the O2, which became the most successful venue in the world within its first year of operation and continues to draw major names such as Razorlight, Metallica and Madonna.”Venue has enjoyed huge success It was part of a wider redevelopment plan for the Greenwich peninsula with Government agency English Partnerships. The dome was re-opened as the O2 in 2007 and became the most popular music venue in the world when its ticket sales of 1.8 million outstripped those of Madison Square Gardens last year

Financial and management Problems

The project was largely reported by the press to have been a flop: badly thought-out, badly executed, and leaving the government with the embarrassing question of what to do with it afterwards. During 2000 the organisers repeatedly asked for, and received, more cash from the Millennium Commission, the Lottery body which supported it. Numerous changes at management and Board level, before and during the exhibition, had only limited, if any, results. Jennifer Page was sacked as chief executive of the New Millennium Experience Company just one month after the dome’s opening. Press reports suggested that the then Prime Minister, Tony Blair, personally placed a high priority on making the Dome a success[citation needed].

But part of the problem was that the financial predictions were based on an unrealistically high forecast of visitor numbers at 12 million. During the 12 months it was open there were approximately 6.5 million visitors — significantly fewer than the approximately 10 million paying visitors that attended the Festival of Britain, which only ran from May to September. Empire Exhibition, Scotland 1938 held in Glasgow attracted more than 12 million visitors being open May to October. Unlike the press, visitor feedback was extremely positive. It was the most popular tourist attraction in 2000, second was the London Eye; third was Alton Towers, which had been first in 1999. According to the UK National Audit Office, the total cost of The Dome at the liquidation of the New Millennium Experience Company in 2002 was £789 million, of which £628 million was covered by National Lottery grants and £189 million through sales of tickets etc.

A surplus of £25 million over costs meant that the full lottery grant was not required. However, the £603 million of lottery money was still £204 million in excess of the original estimate of £399 million required, due to the shortfall in visitor numbers. Here In the extracts following, are set to highlight the different challenges that were faced by the millennium dome, as a huge venture by which some funding was sourced by the means of public funds and displaying that by means of correct management function,s such as those directly addressed by the New owner the O2 were able to transform a white elephant. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Millennium_Dome

This article is about the Dome’s use as a Millennium exhibition. For its post-redevelopment use as an entertainment district, see The O2 (London). The Millennium Dome, colloquially referred to simply as The Dome, is the original name of a large dome-shaped building, originally used to house the Millennium Experience, a major exhibition celebrating the beginning of the third millennium. Located on the Greenwich Peninsula in South East London, England, the exhibition was open to the public from 1 January – 31 December 2000. The project and exhibition was the subject of considerable political controversy as it failed to attract the number of visitors anticipated, with recurring financial problems. All of the original exhibition and associated complex has since been demolished. The dome still exists, and it is now a key exterior feature of The O2. The Prime Meridian passes the western edge of the Dome and the nearest London Underground station is North Greenwich on the Jubilee Line Temporary re-openings

Despite the on-going debate about the dome’s future use, the dome opened again during December 2003 for the Winter Wonderland 2003 experience. The event, which featured a large fun fair, ice rink, and other attractions, culminated in a laser and firework display on New Year’s Eve. It also served as the venue for a number of free music festivals organised by the Mayor of London under the “Respect” banner. Over the 2004 Christmas period, part of the main dome was used as a shelter for the homeless and others in need, organised by the charity Crisis after superseding the London Arena, which had previously hosted the event. In 2005, when work began for the redevelopment of the Dome, the London Arena hosted the event again.

The aftermath

It was, however, still of interest to the press, the government’s difficulties in selling the Dome being the subject of much critical comment. The amount spent on maintaining the closed building was also criticised[citation needed]. Shortly after it had closed, Lord Falconer reported that The Dome was costing over £1 million per month to maintain.

In December 2001, it was announced that Meridian Delta Ltd. had been chosen by the government to develop the Dome as a sports and entertainment centre, and to develop housing, shops and offices on 150 acres (0.6 km2) of surrounding land. It is also hoped to relocate some of London’s tertiary education establishments to the site. Meridian Delta is backed by the American billionaire Philip Anschutz, who has interests in oil, railways, and telecommunications, as well as a string of sports-related investments.

Redevelopment and rebranding as The O2

The dome was publicly renamed as The O2 on 31 May 2005, in a £6 million-per-year deal with telecommunications company O2 plc, now a subsidiary of Telefónica O2. This announcement, which presaged a major redevelopment of the site that retained little beyond the shell of the dome, gave publicity to the dome’s transition into an entertainment district including an indoor arena, a music club, a cinema, an exhibition space and bars and restaurants. This redevelopment was undertaken by the dome’s new owners, the Anschutz Entertainment Group, to a design by HOK SVE and Buro Happold. It cost £600 million, and the resulting venue opened to the public on 24 June 2007, with a concert by rock band Bon Jovi. Due to so much attention being drawn to the public eye there were inevitably huge effects on political careers This section requires expansion.

Issues related to the Dome damaged Peter Mandelson’s and John Prescott’s political careers. The scheme was seen as an early example of what some saw as Tony Blair’s often excessive optimism, who stated at the Dome’s opening: “In the Dome we have a creation that, I believe, will truly be a beacon to the world”. The fact that Mandelson’s grandfather was Herbert Morrison who as a minister had been involved with the Festival of Britain often was drawn on for negative comparisons. http://news.sky.com/skynews/Home/Business/O2-Arena-For-Sale-London-Music-Venue-For-Millennium-Dome-Lease-Open-To-Bidders/Article/200902215220164 Stage Set For Sale Of O2 Lease

Comments

2:50pm UK, Tuesday February 10, 2009
The lease on the O2 arena, the world’s most successful live music venue, has been put up for sale. The lease on the former Millennium Dome is being marketed by landlord Meridian Delta Dome Limited (MDDL) and is expected to fetch somewhere in the region of £35m. An MDL spokeswoman said last night: “MDL, a joint venture between Lend Lease and Quintain, owns a 999-year lease on the Dome and has granted a 55-year lease to AEG, who created The O2. “It is MDL’s long lease that is being marketed, which includes the £1.5m rental income from AEG for The O2. “Any sale of the MDL lease will not affect the O2, which became the most successful venue in the world within its first year of operation and continues to draw major names such as Razorlight, Metallica and Madonna.”

Venue has enjoyed huge success The Millennium Dome was closed in 2000 after failing to draw in a forecast 12 million visitors and costing around £800m in state funds. A deal was drawn up where the site would be leased to MDL, but ultimately remain in public ownership. It was part of a wider redevelopment plan for the Greenwich peninsula with Government agency English Partnerships. The dome was re-opened as the O2 in 2007 and became the most popular music venue in the world when its ticket sales of 1.8 million outstripped those of Madison Square Gardens last year

Financial and management problems

The project was largely reported by the press to have been a flop: badly thought-out, badly executed, and leaving the government with the embarrassing question of what to do with it afterwards During 2000 the organisers repeatedly asked for, and received, more cash from the Millennium Commission, the Lottery body which supported it. Numerous changes at management and Board level, before and during the exhibition, had only limited, if any, results. Jennifer Page was sacked as chief executive of the New Millennium Experience Company just one month after the dome’s opening.

Press reports suggested that the then Prime Minister, Tony Blair, personally placed a high priority on making the Dome a success. But part of the problem was that the financial predictions were based on an unrealistically high forecast of visitor numbers at 12 million. During the 12 months it was open there were approximately 6.5 million visitors — significantly fewer than the approximately 10 million paying visitors that attended the Festival of Britain, which only ran from May to September. Empire Exhibition, Scotland 1938 held in Glasgow attracted more than 12 million visitors being open May to October. Unlike the press, visitor feedback was extremely positive. It was the most popular tourist attraction in 2000, second was the London Eye; third was Alton Towers, which had been first in 1999.


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