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The design of a system Essay

There are a number of modeling tools and techniques that can be used to understand the design of a system. During this process, these tools and techniques can help to describe the business processes, requirements, and the users interaction with the system. One type of modeling is the functional decomposition diagram (FDD). It is similar to an organizational chart in that it uses a top-down model to describe the process. The FDD is a good way of breaking the process down from the higher-level to the lower-level processes. Another kind of modeling technique is the business process model. Business process models are good for describing business processes like filling a product order or updating a customer account. Utilizing BPM can help speed up results as well as reduce errors and lower cost.

Data flow diagrams (DFD) are created out of functions in functional decomposition diagrams. A function from the FDD can be taken and described in further detail using a DFD. Yet another method of modeling is the unified modeling language (UML). The UML is a common method for visualizing and documenting software systems. It does not depend on a programming language and is good for describing business processes and requirements in a general manner.

Different graphical tools are used to look at the process from the viewpoint of the end user. Sequence diagrams show a process from top to bottom while representing interaction between objects in a horizontal manner. Lastly, the use case diagram is a method that is used to show the interaction between the user and the system. The user has a specific role being performed and as they interact with the system, a use case describes each step taken and the related outcome (Shelly & Rosenblatt, 2012). The following use cases will diagram a bank customer interacting with an ATM while withdrawing, depositing, and transferring money.

Use Case 1 – ATM Withdrawal Typical Course

A bank customer arrives at the bank and pulls up to the ATM. He enters his card into the ATM and is prompted to enter his PIN number. The system asks the customer which type of transaction he would like to make. He chooses to make a withdrawal and the system displays the customer’s available accounts and asks him to choose an account to withdraw the money from. He chooses his checking account and is prompted by the system to enter in an amount for withdrawal. The customer enters in $100 and selects OK. The system asks the user if he would like a receipt with his transaction and he chooses YES. The ATM issues $100 to him in $20 bills and debits his account. A receipt is printed and the system displays a message asking the customer if he would like another transaction or his card back. He chooses to get his card back and the ATM returns it to him. The man takes his card from the ATM and drives away.

Use Case 1 – ATM Withdrawal Alternate Course 1 (Incorrect PIN)

A bank customer arrives at the bank and pulls up to the ATM. He enters his card into the ATM and is prompted to enter his PIN number. He enters his PIN and the system displays a message stating the PIN is incorrect. He enters the PIN number again and the system displays the message again. The customer tries the PIN number one more time and the system displays a message on the screen that says the card has been retained after too many incorrect attempts to enter the PIN. He is asked to enter the bank to retrieve the card. The customer enters the bank to inquire about the card and is notified that the PIN he was entering is the wrong PIN for that card. He realizes he was entering the PIN number of his wife’s debit card. The card is returned to the customer and he leaves the bank.

Use Case 1 – ATM Withdrawal Alternate Course 2 (Insufficient Funds) A bank customer arrives at the bank and pulls up to the ATM. He enters his card into the ATM and is prompted to enter his PIN number. The system asks the customer which type of transaction he would like to make. He chooses to make a withdrawal and the system displays the customer’s available accounts and asks him to choose an account to withdraw the money from. He chooses his checking account and is prompted by the system to enter in an amount for withdrawal. The customer enters in $100 and hits OK. The system displays a message on the ATM screen stating there are insufficient funds available. The customer hits OK and requests a balance inquiry on the checking account. The system displays an available balance of $60 dollars.

The customer chooses to make another transaction and selects withdrawal. The system displays the customer’s available accounts and asks him to choose an account to withdraw money from. He chooses the checking account and is prompted by the system to enter in the amount to withdraw. He chooses $40 dollars and selects OK. The system asks the user if he would like a receipt with his transaction and he chooses YES. The ATM issues $40 to him in $20 bills and debits his account. A receipt is printed and the system displays a message asking the customer if he would like another transaction or his card back. He chooses to get his card back and the ATM returns it to him. The man takes his card from the ATM and drives away.

A bank customer arrives at the bank and pulls up to the ATM. He enters his card into the ATM and is prompted to enter his PIN number. The system asks the customer which type of transaction he would like to make. He chooses to make a deposit and the system displays the customer’s available accounts and asks him to choose an account to deposit the money to. He chooses his checking account and is prompted by the system to enter in an amount to deposit. The customer chooses to deposit $100 dollars. The system prompts him to enter the money into the ATM. The customer enters his money into the ATM. The ATM counts the money confirming that $100 has been entered. The system asks the customer if he would like to make another transaction or get his card back. The customer chooses to get his card back and his card is returned. A receipt is printed by the ATM confirming the $100 deposit. The customer takes the receipt and drives away.

A bank customer arrives at the bank and pulls up to the ATM. He enters his card into the ATM and is prompted to enter his PIN number. The system asks the customer which type of transaction he would like to make. He chooses to make an account transfer. The system asks the customer which account he would like to transfer from. He chooses to transfer from primary checking. The system asks the customer which account he would like to transfer to. He chooses to transfer to savings. The system displays the balance in primary checking and asks how much he would like to transfer to savings. The customer chooses to transfer $100.

The screen displays a message asking the customer to confirm the transfer of $100 from primary checking to savings. The customer chooses OK. The system confirms that $100 dollars has been transferred from primary checking to savings. A message on the screen asks the customer if he would like to make another transaction or get his card back. He chooses to get his card back and the system prints a receipt confirming the $100 transfer from primary checking to savings. The customer takes his card and the receipt and drives away.

An ethical concern that was raised during the compilation of these use cases was the result of multiple failed PIN entries during a transaction with the ATM system. How many failed entries should be too many before the system confiscates the customer’s card and forces them to come into the bank to retrieve it? How can the system be set up to stop someone with a stolen debit card from going from ATM to ATM and trying different PIN numbers until they hit on the correct one?

Today there are so many ways for individuals to engage with information systems in an unethical way. It is essential for businesses to address questions like these to try and mitigate this type of unethical behavior (Sebastian, 2011). I think another ethical issue that arose when writing the use cases for the ATM system was the issue of replacing people with machines. Advances in technology like the ATM system and online banking have helped to streamline, change, or even eliminate business processes and operations (Relkin, 2006). When writing use cases for a system, it is essential look at the legal and ethical aspects of the actions. There are no shortage of questions that arise and no easy answers but the questions must be raised.

References
Relkin, J. (2006, July 06). 10 ethical issues raised by it capabilities. Retrieved from http://www.techrepublic.com/article/10-ethical-issues-raised-by-it-capabilities/6091121 Sebastian, E. (2011, March 23). Information technology challenges to the development of business code of ethics. Retrieved from http://voices.yahoo.com/information-technology-challenges-development-8104714.html Shelly, G., & Rosenblatt, H. (2012). Systems analysis and design. (9th ed., pp. 149-152). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.


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