System approach theory
A system is a combination of things or parts forming a complex or a unitary whole aimed at working together to achieve a common purpose. This approach was used to integrate various management schools; it mainly aimed at job managing. With this approach, an organization was to divide itself into manageable systems forming a whole so as to be able to fully increase the workers’ productivity and issues for successful results. Managing jobs and provide a framework for visualizing internal and external environment factors as an integrated whole. An organization is then seen as an open system that is influenced by both internal and external environmental forces. System approach generally had the idea to integrate the human relations and mathematical approaches into the appropriate functional areas system approach also includes mathematical and the forecasting techniques. System approach included inputs, outputs, transformation process and feedback and each part of the system selected
The contingency approach.
Contingency approach to management theorizes that different situations and conditions require different management approaches. During the 1970’s the contingency approach gained popularity. Promoters and advocates of this theory believe that there is no one best way in managing; the best way depends on the specific circumstances. What makes the contingency approach different from other approaches is that it goes beyond the normal ways of dealing with management and deals with the situation accordingly. This approach allows flexibility whereby managers should not stick to one method throughout. Positive change is likely to happen when contingency approach is used in a situation where the old approach did not work.
For example a human resources manager in a beverage company who gets a lot of strikes and labor turnover should not stick to one method of training them where situation demands them to be retained so the best way in such a situation is the retention program so as to reduce labor turnover and strikes. The above illustration shows different situations and how to face them accordingly. The security policy will be applicable when there is insecurity in the organization and others like risk management, internal control and the information auditing so as to reach the organization’s goals. This approach can be used in Tanzanian organizations so as to avoid rigidness among organizations and to bring change. The government can use this approach to solve different problems facing it by using newer and many different approaches and also in one way or another promote democracy.