It seems that while most of the world is recovering or in the strong throws of recession and nationwide depression, India is on the reverse of this economic down slope. Although the past history of Indian in economic affairs has had its rough spots, the country’s current trillion dollar economy is stable due to its “bureaucracy” and “protectionist policies” (Timmons New York Times) and perhaps in small part due to its coalition governance (The Economist).
In point of fact, the economic growth for India can be seen in the December ending quarter wherein the numbers show an increase of 5.3 percent. With the world in the state it is in, and with most countries not being able to boast of an increase in their end quarter numbers, many wonder how India’s numbers are even scheduled to improve over the next several months.
Most of India does not market to a global economy. India’s farmers grow crops and herd animals with full intent of having the benefits of their foods and products remain in the country. Suffice it to say that India’s “state dominated financial system” (Timmons The New York Times) is what enables the country to maintain and improve its economy. Although this state sanctioned financial system is not the only thing that India has going for it. Indeed, the way that the government has handed out tax cuts as well as other boons for its people, no wonder that the projected numbers for its next closing quarter are remarked to be up 7 percent (Timmons The New York Times).
Although India does hold stake in any large foreign investments, the country is the largest one where families are heavily dependent on income made from family members outside of the country and which is subsequently sent home. To support this fact India is said to take in “$20 billion dollars a year in remitted money” (Timmons The New York Times).
Thus, while India’s numbers are high currently, the lose of jobs overseas, especially as it is seen in the middle east where many Indians go, will have a foreseeably devastating effect on their economy. However, such news does not take away from the more optimistic of those in support of India making a full recovery from whatever recession marks the country. Mainly this is do to in recent years, especially for the past 10 years, India has seen a boom in technology and technological jobs to the tune of $60 million outsourced jobs to India from Kohlberg Kravis Roberts (Timmons The New York Times).
With this idea of globalization it seems that any new business, and the employees of that business are exposed to the concept of globalization. One issue that is predominant in globalization is the outsourcing of jobs to different countries. This practice is becoming more and more common among IT jobs.
Globalization occurs when a country’s business decides to relocate into a foreign market. This foreign market reflects a lower-cost production, usually overseas in places like India. In the past 10 years the dominant market in India, other than the farming market, is that of the growing technical market and in this technical market the boon to the economy that India is witnessing and experience currently is due to other countries outsourcing these IT jobs.
The growing economy in India also changes the country’s environment and its culture. With so many jobs being from outsourced companies, India is being exposed to a global market despite the state’s archaic hold onto the farm industry. One aspect of the growing economy is that of the subject of education. India is becoming more aware of what a strong education will do for its children and so the rise in the level of students continuing their academic pursuits is sky rocketing. With this educational change in the culture a new focus on poverty and cleaning up urban areas has commenced. Each of these changes in the culture of India is due to its widening in bilateral relations with the United States, as the Wilson Center states,
Lavin emphasized that due to the “policy choices and hard work” of the Indian public and private sectors, the pace of U.S.-India business activity has accelerated substantially, resulting in the “largest ever trade mission undertaken by the U.S. government to any country in the world” in November 2006. Progress in the U.S.-India economic relationship has occurred in the areas of civil aviation, under the “open skies agreement”; tariff cuts in industrial goods; extensions in patent protection; some flexibilities in investment regulations; and increased publicity on educational opportunities in the U.S. for Indian students (The Wilson Center).
In point of fact, it is through globalization that the educational strength of India has been able to grow at an exponential rate. In further support of this educational bonus to globalization the Wilson Center goes on to state “it is through empowering citizens with education and deepening the democratic system that infrastructure development will best be achieved.” (The Wilson Center).
However there is still a certain element to the lack of focus on poverty that does not allow for this educational growth to be well balanced. India is not without corruption. This corruption is seen in institutions, “Kapur explained how the land of smallholder farmers is regularly appropriated by unaccountable and non-transparent mergers between the state and the private sector. These land appropriations are fueling social unrest, leading to increased levels of violence between the state authorities and the peasantry.” (The Wilson Center).
Thus, in the improvement of higher education due to globalization the country sees something else entirely and unexpected; these land disputes and the growth of the private sector against the state mergers, one can see that with universities being privatized there will no doubt be manipulation of admissions through a caste-based acceptance. Thus, education for the poor will not likely be the future of India which further illustrates the idea of social injustice. This growth in education is only being limited through state manipulation and therefore the idea of globalization becomes hindering to the country as a whole.
The question now becomes, with economy becoming such an important feature in the all-over growth of India, how is education changing with the face of such a national change? Sengupta states in The New York Times,
India has long had a legacy of weak schooling for its young, even as it has promoted high-quality government-financed universities. But if in the past a largely poor and agrarian nation could afford to leave millions of its people illiterate, that is no longer the case. Not only has the roaring economy run into a shortage of skilled labor, but also the nation’s many new roads, phones and television sets have fueled new ambitions for economic advancement among its people — and new expectations for schools to help them achieve it. (Sengupta The New York Times).
Public financing, it would seem, is the gateway to a future which balances a healthy economic growth along with the importance of education for the rich and the many more poor in India.
Sengupta goes on to explain how the lack of public financing, illiterate parents and a general consensus of general neglect are to blame for the education system in India. If things are to change for the country, then it should begin with education for it is after all the children who will one day rule the country.
Two goals which should be the focus of a better growth for India are of course 1). Education and 2). Trying to end poverty. The education of the country, and the balance of that education, meaning not manipulating acceptance into privatized universities but allowing education and the option of a college education to all children on the entire length of the caste system totem pole to be allowed to attend college. It is in this that the country will begin to have strong leaders and with that comes great ideas of improving the country. If the investment in the children is there early on then the future growth of the country will be heightened.
Almost half of the population of India is under the age of 18, as such, the numbers for poverty among them is exponential and when considering these factors, and the future of these poor children and the lack of that future for them, then the country as a whole will face economic hardship as it will be difficult for almost half of its population and among these most being of the lower social class, to find and maintain jobs especially if they are unable to read. If the growth of the country is found in overseas jobs or globalization the importance of knowing how to read becomes essential. (Sengupta The New York Times).
The fight against poverty is also crucial to the country’s growth. The economic state of the country is a strong reflection into the educational part of the country, as Sengupta states, “The aides who were hired to draw more village children into school complain that they have not received money to buy educational materials.
Or the school has stopped serving lunch even though sacks of rice are piled in the classroom. Or parents agree to enroll their son in school, but know that they will soon send the child away to work.” (Sengupta The New York Times). Without the proper funding, that is, without a rich economy that dedicates part of its reserve and funding into education that 40% of the population under 18 turns into 40% of the population over 18 and without jobs which overall weakens the economy.
Thus, the kinds of policies that the country needs to pursue is succinctly this: Globalization for education. Although the problems that may exist will be convincing the legislation for diverging funds into the program, this may be surmounted with the proper campaign on how these children may potentially bring India into the forefront of economic wealth.
Economist. (May 31, 2007). History in Brief. The Economist. Online. Accessed 3 May 2009.
Sengupta, Somini. (January 17, 2008). Education Push Yields Little for India’s Poor. The
New York Times. Online. Accessed 3 May 2009.
The Wilson Center. (April 13, 2007). Challenges and Opportunities of Globalization in
India. Online. Accessed 3 May 2009.
Timmons, Heather. (March 1, 2009). India Retains Optimism and Economic Growth.
The New York Times. Online. Accessed 3 May 2009. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/02/business/worldbusiness/02rupee.html
Describe the participation of India in the global economy and society in the last 30 years with particular