The brain is the most complex organ in the body. The human brain is very unique. There are different sections of the brain and each section has a unique job. The brain can control a person’s mood, the organs, and hormones and how the body moves and operates. This paper will describe two parts of the brain, the frontal lobe and the temporal lobe and how they relate to human behavior including the effects of heredity. It will also contrast the two sections as they relate to behavior. It will then describe what could happen if there is damage to the specific lobes.
There are five different sections of the brain. The brain is also divided by two hemispheres, the left hemisphere and the right hemisphere. Each section has its own unique ability to control how feelings and how the body functions. The five sections of the brain are called the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, the cerebellum and the temporal lobe. The two parts of the brain described in this paper are the frontal lobe and the temporal lobe. These two parts of the brain are very important because they can control how a person communicates and uses information.
The frontal lobe is located in the front of the brain. It is associated with higher level cognition, reasoning, motor skills, and planning. It is what gives the person sense of self and control of movement. The frontal lobe is actually two lobes acting as one. The primary motor cortex is located at the rear of the frontal lobes and connects the two. The primary motor cortex is what controls movement of the body and contains mirror neurons. These mirror neurons become active when a motor action is done and when the person or animal is observing the same action. The remaining frontal areas are called association areas and they combine and process all of the information. (Coon & Mitterer, 2013)
When the frontal lobe is damaged due to an injury, whether it is a heredity issue, or whether the brain did not develop well before birth, it can cause many behavioral problems. Damage to the neurons can result in unusual behaviors, emotional problems, or trouble communicating. Some association areas of this part of the brain control language. The Broca’s area is located in left part of the brain for about 95% of people and the right part for the other 5% and it is responsible for speech.(Coon & Mitterer, 2013) If this part of the brain is damaged it can cause expressive aphasia. Aphasia robs a person of their ability to communicate verbally and written.
The temporal lobes are another part of the brain that is responsible for hearing and language. These lobes are located on the bottom of each side of the brain. This is the locations where hearing is registered in the brain. The primary auditory area is located in this area. The rest of the temporal lobe is the association areas. If the temporal lobes are damaged then this can cause language and recognition issues. This can result in memory loss speech problems and paranoia, aggressiveness and language skills. (Draper, 2010)
Wernicke’s area is located in the left side of the temporal lobe for 95% of all people and the right side for the other 5%. It is related to language and comprehension. Someone with damage to this part of the brain would have fluent aphasia. This person can hear the speech but is not able to recognize the meaning of the words. (Coon & Mitterer, 2013)
Heredity can also play a part in damaging the brain. Genes do not cause behavioral issues related to the brain but can increase the probability of an individual having behavioral issues related to damage to the brain. Behavioral issues related to heredity could include dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Front temporal disorders are forms of dementia caused by a family of brain diseases known as front temporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). This comes with age and causes severe loss of thinking and it can interfere with a person’s ability to perform everyday activities. (National Institute on Aging, 2014)
There are differences to what these two parts of the brain can do. They are both very important for communication, memory, language and movement. It is vital to a human for these two sections of the brain to work properly. Without them a person could not communicate properly, speak, move or interpret information fluently. Damage to either parts of these lobes of the brain could have a significant effect on a human’s behavior. Understanding and knowing how the brain works could help others understand what needs to be evaluated in themselves or in someone else.
Coon, D., & Mitterer, J. O. (2013). _Introduction to psychology: Gateways to mind and behavior with concept maps and reviews_ (13th ed.). Retrieved from The University of Phoenix eBook Collection database
Draper, R. (2010). _Patient.co.uk_. Retrieved from http://www.patient.co.uk/doctor/Temporal-Lobe-Lesions.htm
National Institute on Aging. (2014). _Frontotemporal disorders: Information for patients, families, and caregivers_. Retrieved from http://www.nia.nih.gov/alzheimers/publication/frontotemporal-disorders/basics-frontotemporal-disorders