India and China both reeled under the agonising rule of monarchs and feudalist regimes and needed unification. While China never was ruled by foreign powers, India remained under the rule of the Portuguese, British and French and at the same time a few princely states till it got freedom and the unification process to amalgamate the princely states began.
India chose a federal polity while China has been run as a unitary polity. China is a unitary hard state and it can pursue a single goal with determination and mobilize maximal resources in its achievement. India preferred to move on the path of federal democratic republic wherein the concept of the mixed economy was introduced, whereas the People’s Republic of China became a unitary people’s democratic dictatorship wherein the entire economy had state controlled industries and businesses and the concept of private sector was not given any freedom to operate.
The democratic structure of the Indian polity and the concept of public-private-partnership, competition between the public and private sectors in healthcare, economic activities, food provisions, housing shelters, etc were aimed to give a boost to the economy. With the freedom of mobility all over the country for all, skilled and professionally equipped found better employment opportunities in various upcoming industries. Establishment of industrial houses, infrastructural developments like roads, rails, water management with the help of construction of dams etc became catalysts of growth in agriculture and industry alike.
Natural resources in India are abundant. India has all the socially well-knit requirements for growth of a civilized society. It is an example of unity in diversity where thousands of tribes and castes following different religions co-exist. India is an example of one of the greatest democracies in the world.
China, however, with all the abundance of natural resources initially began its march on the growth path in all the sectors like a closed economy for the world. It didn’t even could get the UN membership with its new name. No freedom of trade and commerce, press, etc was allowed till Mao Zedong held the reins of power.
The growth in the Indian polity was evident as in 1952 India had a per capita income of $60 as against China’s $50. India, despite the long foreign rule and diversity in caste, creed, language and customs, was never been hostile to foreigners as China was. Till 1978, China, despite a growing economy, remained a closed economy from the world.
The situation has, however, now taken a different turn, giving the world surprise blows. China has marched ahead in terms of economic growth, growth in defence mechanism & forces, globalization, exports, etc, leaving India far behind. The reasons are obvious. While China adopted the policy of one child, it could check the tremendous growth of population. Economic activities grew at a faster pace. More discipline, due to unitary power system, fetched the results in industry, agriculture, sports, etc. Per capita income of China has surpassed the per Capita income of India.
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