A Slum refers to informal settlements within urban areas or cities. The informal settlements depict inadequate housing and miserable condition with reference to living standards (Meade p 43). In the slums, numerous individuals seek housing facilities within small living spaces. The slums also lack basic local authority services such as sanitation, collection of waste, water, drainage systems, street lighting, and emergency roads. Most slums also lack schools, hospital, and public places that might offer adequate environment for social amenities.
The experience of France illustrates the essence of slums within the modern society (Oberti p 58). Crime and unemployment are on the rise within the slums because of the poor living conditions and inaccessibility of the municipal services. UN-HABITAT offers a clear definition of the slum household as the group of individuals who live under the same roof in a city experiencing lack of durable housing facilities, enough living space, and access to clean water, sanitation, and security of tenure to prevent evictions that are forceful in nature.
Development of Slums Development of slums in France results from two factors: population growth and governance. The modern society experiences almost half the population of the world within the cities. Migration of people from the rural areas to the cities in France arises from several factors. These factors include low income in relation to agriculture, push and pull migration forces, prospects of better jobs, survival strategy for the rural households, and accessibility of transport and communication facilities in urban areas.
The other factor that contributes to the development of slums in France is poor governance. This is in relation to inadequate planning and distribution of resource consequently growth and development of slums. Development of slums is a reflection of the crime and unemployment within the nation creating an opportunity for the government to stamp its authority in enhancing the living condition for the citizens (W. L p 412). Preventing of Development of the new Slums Several activities are in place in France towards prevention of further development of slums.
The first measure is acknowledging the fact that urbanization would continue to occur. This addresses the infective approach that involves the development of the rural areas a way of limiting the migration of people to the cities. The government needs to put measures in place to ensure an improvement of living condition of the citizens in the cities. This involves planning effectively and efficiently to address the inadequacies within the cities. Authorities should identify the essence of free land and plan on how to erect housing facilities to serve the overwhelming population growth in the cities.
This would reduce criminal activities and unemployment thus the overall growth and development of the nation (Sheuya p 303). In Thailand, the political commitment, strategic planning, and constant monitoring of the economic development are crucial factors towards prevention of slums. The presence of active civil society in most parts of the world is an element that contributes in the prevention of slums within the modern society. This is possible through adoption and implementation of slum policies. Slum Upgrading and its Importance Slum upgrading is the act of improving informal areas.
The process of improvement involves formalization, incorporation, and extension of land. The authority also provides the essential services to the city dwellers in the form of safe water and effective sanitation process. Slum upgrading in France involves the provision of social, economic, institutional, and community services similar to other citizens. The main aim of upgrading of the slums in France is to develop dynamic society with elements of ownership, inward investment, and entitlement within the informal areas (Parkinson p 142).
The attempt by the government to relocate the slum residents is not practical a factor that has led to the adoption of upgrading techniques. Relocation of the residents expresses elements of high economic and social costs with reference to disruptions. The main beneficial aspect of slum upgrading is that the citizens enjoy fundamental right to live under decent conditions. Slums upgrading enables the city to address crucial challenges such as legality and social protection. The act is also essential in encouraging the development of the economy.
This is in relation to minimization of the unemployment elements within the urban areas. Upgrading of the slums is also noteworthy in relation to the achievement of quality life. Slum upgrading also aims at reducing the level of criminal activities and unemployment from the economy. The governments need to restructure and change social paradigms in order to maximize the outcome of slum upgrading. Conclusion Slums are hindrance to the achievement of economic growth and development. It is the duty of the government to plan effectively towards the achievement of quality life within the cities.
Slums contribute towards the presence of criminal activities within the cities and unemployment hence a significant force towards the overall economic development. Upgrading of slums is vital in the process of offering economic, social, institutional, and cultural services to the city dwellers like other citizens. Works Cited Meade, Eric. “Slums: A Catalyst Bed for Poverty Eradication. ” Futurist 46. 5 (2012): 43-45. W. L. “The Factors That Create a Slum. ” American Journal of Economics & Sociology 45. 4 (2006): 412.. Oberti, Marco.
“The French Republican Model of Integration: The Theory of Cohesion and the Practice of Exclusion. ” New Directions for Youth Development 2008. 119 (2008): 55-74. Jalivay, Nita. “Look Left, Look Wright: Observations From The City Of Light. ” Papers on Language & Literature 44. 4 (2008): 416. Sheuya, Shaaban A. “Improving the Health and Lives of People Living In Slums. ” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1136. (2008): 298-306. Parkinson, J. , K. Tayler, and O. Mark. “Planning and Design of Urban Drainage Systems in Informal Settlements in Developing Countries. ” Urban Water Journal 4. 3 (2007): 137-149.