Language is an illogical naming system of vocal symbol by means of which members of social group to cooperate or communicate (Bloomfield, 1933). Language has many variations since humans as the users of it are very creative. The more creative they are, the more variety the language has, but before the language experiences variations, it first undergoes changes, which make it look variable. Such changes occur mainly because humans are interacting with each other, whether it is through face to face meeting or through social media, like TV. TV has been influencing people’s speech in the term of their lexicon, by airing some shows, which expose many new terms. In this case, those shows involve influencing characters to spread the new terms. The influence is not only caused by their good look, but also from their typical lexicons that they use in their shows. Such influence is easy to make a change in the speech specially those, who watch and admire the characters fervently, the teenagers.
The teenagers here are those, who are physically and mentally still growing in adolescent period, particularly teenagers in the age of nine to fifteen years old. They tend to use some lexicons, used in the TV shows. No wonder, this phenomenon is a must to be analyzed. A study done in London says that people undergo language change because they are introduced linguistic changes by members of social group with most social status (Holmes, 1947: 208). In this case, the artists or the characters, admired by the children, introduce them a new lexicon that influences their speech.
The introduced lexicons are sometimes using foreign languages such as English and Malay, and they are always uttered in a typical intonation by the speakers. Thus, this happening must be analyzed in concern of the decreasing ability of children to use the standard form of Bahasa Indonesia or EYD (Ejaan Yang Disempurnakan). However, we do not have to force the children not to use those specific lexicons, because we still have to appreciate that those lexicons are the products of the speakers’ creativity.
1.2. Research Problems
Based on the elaboration above, there are four formulated problems as follow:
1. How is the speech, used by children, that undergoes a language change?
2.How is the use of the changed language?
3. Why do children adapt the new lexicons?
4. How do children react towards the change in their speech?
1.3. Purposes of the study
According to the background and the formulated questions, there are two purposes of the study. They are the general purpose and the specific purpose. The general purpose of this study is to appreciate the creativity of humans to produce new terms in a language in order to make the language vary. The specific purposes are drawn below. 1. To describe the speech used by children that undergoes a language change. 2. To describe the use of the changed language. 3. To describe the reasons why children adapt the new lexicons. 4. To describe children’s reaction towards the change in their speech.
1.4. Scope of the study
The scope of this study is children in the age of nine to fifteen years old in Singaraja, who watch TV at least once per day. There are some concerns being analyzed in the study. They are the changed speech, the use of the changed speech, the reasons why children adapt the new lexicons, and the children’s reaction towards the change in their speech. In regards to the use of the changed speech, this study is limited to the oral communication done between children and children, and between children and adults. In finding the data, this study will be done in two places. The first place is on Jalan Pulau Komodo, Gang Aditya and the second one is in SMP Negeri 1 Singaraja, which is located at Jalan Gajah Mada 109, Banjar Bali, Buleleng. Those places are chosen because there are many children found there. The methods used in this study are observation, questionnaire, and interview.
1.5. Significance of the study
The results of this study are expected to give benefits as follow: 1. Theoretically, this study results the description of TV shows’ influences towards children’s language, which is hoped to increase the enrichment of Sociolinguistics, specifically in the term of language change that happens due to the influence of TV shows. 2. Practically, this study is beneficial for university students and lecturers. For university students, this study can be used as additional information about the influences of TV shows towards children’s language from the view of Sociolinguistics.
For lecturers, this study can be used as a teaching material in relation to the happening of children’s language change. Besides, the result of this study is also expected to help other researchers as a reference when doing a study that is related to Sociolinguistics. 3. The result of this study is also helping society to react wisely towards the language change that happens to their children. The society will also be aware that various changes in a language are a normal condition because humans are becoming more creative as time goes by.
In order to solve the problems in this study, the researcher is using some theories stated in some literatures. It is believed that a good study is a study that is based on strong and relevant theories. The theories used are stated as follow.
2.1. Language and Society
As noted on neoenglish.wordpress.com in December 2010, language is a social-cultural-geographical phenomenon. To identify a language, people have to bear in mind that it will involve the geographical area in which the language is spoken, the culture and the society in which it is uttered, the speakers, the listeners, and also the purpose of the language. Language and society are two substances that are inseparable. Members of society cannot interact without a language and language does not exist if there is no society living.
It is in society that humans acquire and use a language. In brief, by a language, humans can communicate and adapt to the environment socially and physically. Without a language, humans hardly communicate to each other. Even if they are able to, by using gestures, it will be very limited since gestures cannot describe all words that human think. The use of spoken language gives more chances to human to cooperate or interact rather than using media outside a language.
2.2. Speech Community
Speech community is a group of people who use the same variety of a language, share specific rules for speaking, and for interpreting speech (Nordquist, 2014). Speech is a form of social identity and is used, consciously or unconsciously, to indicate membership of different social groups of different speech communities (The Study of Language, 5th ed., 2014). Members of a community share a same feeling that they belong to the same group by using one variety of speech.
In a speech community, the members are not only sharing the speech that they use, but also the norms in the speech itself. If members of a society use a same variety of speech, it means that they see the norms in the speech itself in a same way. People may become the members of a same community because they share at least on thing in their lives with the other people. In brief, people who share the same occupations, livings, or hobbies have the same view of the norms in a speech that make them become a speech community.
2.3. Language’s functions
There are three basic functions of a language as noted on www.philosophy.lander.edu , in 2009, they are informative, expressive, and directive. Language is informative means that it functions to describe the world or reasons about it and it has a truth value. Language is expressive means that it reports the feelings or attitudes of the writer or the speaker. Meanwhile, the directive function of a language means that it is used for the purpose of causing or preventing overt action. In a nut shell, it is clear that every language has its own purpose. Even, it may be sometimes unacceptable for a certain group of people, but there is still a purpose made by the speaker in the language itself. The functions of a language are actually abundant. Because humans as the users of the language, use it to convey every activity that they do, and humans’ activities are uncountable.
2.4. Kinds of Language
Cicero in 2011 stated that there seemed to be three kinds of language; they are namely slogan, factual, and thought. Slogan is a language that contains clichés or ritualistic statements. It is usually found in a romance or fantasy writing. Sometimes, slogan language is also called idle talk, because when it is said, it does not matter for the hearers, since they already knew what was going to be said. Factual language is a language that involves science or statistical data. It is usually used by the speakers to support what they have said before in order to convince the hearers that their statements are true. On the other hand, thought language is a language that neither use clichés nor statements of truth. This type of language differs from the others in the way that it involves thinking. Thus, it is rarely used by people, since it requires the hearers to think about the utterance that they receive. Thought also sometimes makes the speakers change their utterance, because the hearers might not receive their thought well.
2.5. Language Attitude
Based on www.sil.org, in 2014, people have attitudes, feelings, beliefs, about language in general, their language, and the language of other people. The attitude of someone towards his language cannot be directly observed because it is demonstrated through actual behavior. Such happenings like how people treat other languages, how people do speech convergence, and how people stay stubbornly by doing speech divergence show their attitude towards particular language. The assessment of language attitudes necessitates asking questions about opinions of someone towards other people’s language. A positive attitude to another language will make a good maintenance towards the language being perceived. In the contrary, a negative attitude to another language may cause a neglecting towards each other’s language.
This study is done in order to elicit the needed data or information. The problems discussed in this study are analyzed by using some methods that include: (1) Research Design, (2) Setting of the Study, (3) Subjects of the Study, (4) Instruments, (5) Procedure of Data Collection, and (6) Procedure of Data Analysis.
3.1. Research Design
This study is using descriptive qualitative design. This design is used as a procedure in identifying or depicting the real phenomenon happening in the setting of the study. Thus, the data in this study include the changed speech, the use of the changed speech, the reasons why children adapt the new lexicons, and the children’s reaction towards the change in their speech, which are described in narrative verbal words. The purpose of descriptive qualitative study is to describe the real information based on the analyzed variables. Before this study was conducted, the researcher firstly visited the places that should be observed, they were on Jalan Pulau Komodo, Gang Aditya and in SMP Negeri 1 Singaraja, in order to familiarize the researcher and the children that are involved in this study.
3.2. Settings of the Study
There are two places are used as the settings of the study. The first one was in a housing that is located on Jalan Pulau Komodo, Gang Aditya. There were 5 children being observed in this place. The second one was in SMP Negeri 1 Singaraja, which is located at Jalan Gajah Mada 109, Banjar Bali, Buleleng. In this place, there were also 5 children observed by the researcher.
3.3. Subjects of the Study
The subjects of this study are the children in the settings of this study. Subjects of the study fall into three, they are (1) people, humans that researcher ask about the studied variables, (2) paper, documents or other printed media that are used by the researcher and has a correlation with the study, (3) place, spaces that the activities are conducted in (Arikunto, 1989). The subjects of this study are 10 children in total, on Jalan Pulau Komodo, Gang Aditya and in SMP Negeri 1 Singaraja.
As a support to the method in collecting the data, the researcher used some appropriate instruments that were coherent with the goal of this study. The instruments are observation, questionnaire, a note book, and a hand phone to record the interview. All the instruments are well-prepared to get supportive data for this study.
3.5. Procedure of Data Collection
Based on the problems being discussed, there are some methods used to find the data of the problems. The methods that are used to find the data of children’s speech that undergoes a language change are passive participation observation and interview. This observation was done by using a recorder in a hand phone to record the specific lexicons used by the children of this study. To gain the data of the use of the changed language, the researcher used observation method, particularly, passive observation method. A questionnaire was also given to each of the children to get the data of the reasons why children adapt the new lexicons. The questionnaire contained some comprehensible questions to answer. Before the questionnaire was answered, the researcher gave some explanations to the children about the questionnaire. To obtain the data of children’s reaction towards the change in their speech, a questionnaire was used.
3.6. Procedure of Data Analysis
After having the collected data from the recording of the passive participation observation and interview, the results were then transcribed in the research. The data of the questionnaire answered by the children were also transcribed in the research. The data were next descriptive qualitatively written in the form of narrative verbal words. At the end, there was a conclusion taken about the influence of TV shows towards the children’s speech.
FINDING AND DISCUSSION
In this part, the result of the study is described consecutively based on the studied problems that include: (1) The speech used by children that undergoes a language change, (2) The use of the changed language, (3) The reasons why children adapt the new lexicons, and (4) Children’s reaction towards the change in their speech.
4.1. Result of the study
In this study, there were five questionnaires given to children, two times of observation, and five interviews were done to the other five children. The interviews were done between an adult and a child involved in each session. The data which are related to the problems studied, drawn as follow 4.1.1. The speech used by children that undergoes a language change The method used to elicit the data of the speech used by children that undergo a language change is observation. It can be seen that the lexicons adapted by children are still in the form of short phrases. They are used occasionally when the meaning of the lexicons can be delivered to the hearers. The example is the lexicons “Betul, betul, betul” adapted by two children at the age of nine. They used those lexicons only when they could get the chance to say that.
One of the two children used those lexicons when he was asked by his friend whether he was going to move to another place. Still, most of the children’s speech adapts small numbers of lexicons, only from the TV shows that they like or even the character that they favor. Most of the lexicons used by 10 children are still simple. They reach words that are used in the TV shows that they like, which are mostly dedicated for children. The most obvious symptom gotten from their speech is that they used certain intonation to deliver the adapted lexicons. As in the lexicons “Betul, betul, betul” the intonation tends to be raising. It happened because they just solely imitate what the TV shows air to them. If the TV shows broadcast certain adapted lexicons by children with a raising intonation, then the children who copy that will tend to use the same intonation. However, in small cases, like what happened to another two children at the age of fifteen, they could make a bit variation to the lexicons that they adapt. Sometimes, they joked by slowing down or fastening the speed of saying the lexicons.
Even the last syllables of the lexicons may be sometimes taken, as in the lexicons “Betul, betul, betul”, which were shortened into “Tul, tul, tul” by one of the fifteen-year-old children. The use of the changed speech was mostly done with their friends. It is because their friends could accept that and find that the use of the changed speech was fun. Another possible reason is their friends were using some adapted lexicons from other TV shows. Conversely, the use of the changed speech decreased when they talked to their parents or adults around them. The reason might be because the adults could not accept that as a form of appropriate speech when the children were talking to the elderly.
Another plausible reason was because the adults did not use the lexicons, adapted by children, in their daily speech. The relationship between the children with the people that they are talking to also determines the use of the changed speech. It was found that the changed speech of children came up when they talked to close relatives or close friends. It is likely because they feel that the hearers can accept whatever speech that they use due to the closeness. However, when they talked to foreigners, guests, or other people that they rarely saw, the speech used by the children changed into the casual one that is the speech that could be accepted by anyone in their surroundings.
4.1.2. The use of the changed speech
The data of the use of the changed speech are the results of the observation, questionnaires, and interview done by the researcher, which are presented as follow.
184.108.40.206. Communication between children and children
Child 1: Yang nawang ape artine hot dog.
Child 2: Tawang, anjing panas artine
Child 1: Naa Naaa tidong ento tidong ento.
Child 1: Yang be maan Shen Long tuni di Bloody Roare
Child 2: Ajaan? Nyen keanggon?
Child 1: Jenny keanggon
Child 2: Meh nyaan, kan Shen Long aeng. Ngolok- ngolok gen gaene Child 1: Hahaha gurau je
Child 1: Ri, abaang charger laptope
Child 2: Oke fix, gampang
From the data presented above, it can be seen that the adapted lexicons were used frequently by children when they were talking to each other. Mostly, the situation was very informal and they combined the lexicons with their regional dialect. The adapted lexicons were mostly used to fulfill the feeling of contentment of the speaker, because when they used the lexicons, they felt like they resembled the characters in the TV shows. Another function of the adapted lexicons is to soften the situation.
As shown, in Communication 2, child one wanted to soften the situation between him and the interlocutor because he had lied to the interlocutor in the beginning. The use of the adapted lexicons is mostly accompanied with Balinese and Bahasa Indonesia. The accompaniment of Balinese is used when they are at home or playing in the housings around their living. However, the accompaniment of Bahasa Indonesia is used when they are at school, because most students are using Bahasa Indonesia there.