Chapter One is divided into eight parts: (1) Background of the Study, (2) Statement of the Problem, (3) Objectives, (4) Hypotheses, (5) Significance of the Study, (6) Research Framework, (7) Scope and Limitation of the Study, and (8) Definition of terms. Part One, Background of the Study, presents the introduction about the study and discusses the rationale for choosing the study. Part Two, Statement of the Problem, evaluates the purpose in conducting the study. Part Three, Objectives, enumerates the aim of the study. Part Four, Hypotheses, cites the assumptions on the result of the study. Part Five, Significance of the Study, describes the benefits that can be derived from the results of the study.
Part Six, Research Framework, shows the theoretical framework of the study. Part Seven, Scope and Limitation of the Study, determines the extent of the study and identifies what are to be included in the study. Part Eight, Definition of terms, lists the important terms defined in conceptual and operational manner for the purpose of clarity.
Background of the Study
The aftermath of typhoon Yolanda or internationally known as typhoon Haiyan, is one of the worst typhoons Philippines have experienced. This calamity resulted to destruction of properties and this calamity has also caused blackouts all over the place. Electricity— is badly needed after a typhoon, especially after the typhoon Yolanda. Electricity is used to charge cellphones to communicate and get some help. It is also used to power radios and televisions to be updated for current news and further instructions from the government. But because of absence of electricity, communications and media are not likely to serve their purpose. Energy comes in different forms. Light, heat, and electricity are forms of energy. Heat energy is used in solar panels in order for it to generate electricity.
A solar panel is composed of arrays of solar cells. The solar cells are responsible for trapping and converting the sunlight into electricity. This is possible because of the photovoltaic effect. Manganese (Mn) is a hard, brittle, silvery metal used to harden steel. It is used to form many important alloys. Manganese (IV) oxide is used as depolarizer in dry cells, and to decolorize glass. Manganese (II) oxide is a powerful oxidizing agent and is used in quantitative analysis. Manganese minerals are widely distributed with pyrolusite and rhodocrosite being the most common. (http://periodic.lanl.gov/25.shtml)
Statement of the Problem
1. How will the manganese solar cell affect the electricity production of solar energy? Specific Problems
1. Is there a difference between manganese solar cell and silicon solar cell in terms of mean electricity production in volts?
2. Is there a difference between manganese solar cell and silicon solar cell in terms of its capacity to maintain its current output. mean capability of durability?
3. Is there a difference between manganese solar cell and silicon solar cell in terms of its mean market acceptability rating capability?
1. To be able to know the effect of manganese solar cells in electricity production of solar energy.
1. To be able to know the difference between manganese and silicon solar cells in terms of mean electricity production in volts.
2. To be able to know the difference between manganese and silicon solar cells in terms of its mean capability of durability.
3. To be able to know the difference between manganese and silicon solar cells in terms of in terms of its mean market capability.
1. There is a difference between manganese solar cell and silicon solar cell in terms of mean electricity production in volts. 2. There is a difference between manganese solar cell and silicon solar cell in terms of its mean capability of durability. 3. There is a difference between manganese solar cell and silicon solar cell in terms of in terms of its mean market capability.
Significance of the Study
Electricity is now widely used in the community Huge power plants provide electricity to the distributors in which they distribute to every home in the community. But the price of electricity is increasing steadily nowadays, leaving the community a hard time to cope up with their daily expenses. Typhon Yolanda or internationally known as Typhoon Haiyan has left Philippines especially the families in Tacloban in great destruction. This typhoon also caused black-outs to every affected community. Due to lack of electricity, communications and media are likely impossible to serve their purposes. Nuclear energy is used by some company to generate electricity but nuclear energy has posed grave threats to the community and its health.
Hydro-electric energy is likewise used to generate electricity but due to current issues of drought it results to power shortage. Wind energy is also used in some places the wind is constant but not all places has strong winds to generate electricity. The sun, which is the abundant source of life on Earth, also generates solar energy. Solar energy is being converted to electricity for the community to use. In which the solar energy is a renewable source of energy. This study can help the community by using the solar energy in order to obtain electricity. This study can help those persons who are in need of electricity especially those who are affected by the Typhoon Yolanda as this research study contains information about the effect of manganese as alternative for silicon as the main-component of solar cells.
Independent Variables Dependent variables Manganese solar cell Mean electricity production in volts Silicon solar cell Mean capability of durability Mean market acceptability rating Figure 1: the effect of manganese and silicon solar cells to the mean electricity production in volts, mean capability of durability, and mean market acceptability rating.
Scope and Limitations
This study will be able to generate stable production of electricity in form of volts (V) from a solar cell with manganese as its main component. Silicon will be substituted by manganese as the main component of a solar cell because of its properties similar to silicon. With these properties, manganese can also conduct and absorb heat similar to the silicon but in a much cheaper price. The solar panel should be able to generate electricity enough for regular household use of 220 volts. The materials that will be used should be in good condition to be able to achieve the expected results.
The mean electricity production in volts, mean capability of durability, and mean market acceptability rating will be computed with the given formulas. This study will be constructed and completed at Blk. 28, Lot 61, Pahanocoy Village, Bacolod City. The main component, manganese will be acquired at Kabankalan City, where the supply is abundant. This study will be limited in testing the production of electricity in form of volts (V), generated by the manganese solar cell. In which the input should be 12 volts (V) and the output, 220 volts which is enough to supply electricity for household use.
Definition of Terms
1. Solar cells- a photovoltaic cell used as a power source. In this study, the component of the solar cell will be altered. 2. Photovoltaic effect- any of several phenomena caused by the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with (usually metallic) substances. In this study, the photovoltaic effect will be responsible for the conversion of energy. 3. Manganese- a grayish-white, polyvalent metallic element that is usually hard and brittle, occurring in nature usually as an oxide, carbonate, or silicate. In this study, manganese will be used as substitute to silicon in constructing the solar cells. 4. Solar Energy- is the cleanest and most abundant renewable energy source available. Solar energy is the technology used to harness the sun’s energy and make it useable. In this study, solar energy will be measured to be able to know certain variables.
Chapter Two is divided into four main parts: (1) Foreign Literature, (2) Local Literature, (3) Foreign Study and (4) Local Study. Part One, Foreign Literature, evaluates topics concerning the study. Part Two, Local Literature, depicts local topics associated to the investigation. Part Three, Foreign Study, displays research concerning the study. Part Four, Local Study, shows local researches related to the study.
Today, most manganese is still obtained from pyrolusite, although it is usually burned in a furnace with powdered aluminum or is treated with sulfuric acid (H2SO4) to form manganese sulfate (MnSO4), which is then electrolyzed. Almost 90% of manganese produced each year plays a great role in the production of steel. Manganese is added to molten steel to remove oxygen and sulfur and is alloyed with steel to make it easier to form and work with and to increase steel’s strength and resistance to impact. One of these examples is the railroad tracks, which are made with steel that contains as much as 1.2% manganese.
Manganese is also used to give glass an amethyst color and is responsible for the color of amethyst gemstones. Manganese dioxide (MnO2), the most common compound of manganese, makes up about 0.14% of the Earth’s crust. It is used in dry cell batteries to prevent the formation of hydrogen, to remove the green color in glass that is caused by the presence of iron contaminants, and as a drying agent in black paints. http://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele025.html Silicon
Silicon is the seventh most abundant element in the universe and the second most abundant element in the earth’s crust. Today, silicon is produced by heating sand (SiO2) with carbon to temperatures approaching 2200°C. When silicon is doped with other elements, it is used to manufacture solid-state electronic devices, such as transistors, solar cells, rectifiers and microchips. Silicon dioxide (SiO2), silicon’s most common compound, is the most abundant compound in the earth’s crust.
It commonly takes the form of ordinary sand, and also exists in some kind of rocks. Silicon dioxide is extensively used in the manufacture of glass and bricks. Silicon forms other useful compounds. It is widely used as abrasives, adhesives, and preservatives. Silicon is also an important ingredient in silicone, a class of material that is used for such things as lubricants, polishing agents, electrical insulators and medical implants. http://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele014.html Local Literature
Manganese can be acquired in the places in Region 6 like Kabankalan, Cauayan and Sipalay. Nevertheless, manganese is not available for selling in the said places, therefore can be bought at Oriental Ore & Mineral Ventrures Corp. which is located in Brgy. Badiangan, Ajuy, Iloilo. It can also be bought at Libertad Fuentes located at Tandaog, Tanaglan, Aklan. http://www.mgb.gov.ph/Files/MTMD/Applications/R6_MTSR_November_2011.pdf Foreign Study
As of today, solar energy has been viewed as only a minor contributor in the energy mixture of the US due to cost and intermittency constraints. But, solar energy proved that it is this cost competitive with fossil fuel energy generation. It shows that with the right incentives, cost competitiveness with grid prices in the US can be attained by 2020. Based on expected improvements of established, commercially available PV, CSP, and CAES technologies, they show that solar energy has the technical, geographical, and economic potential to supply 69% of the total electricity needs and 35% of the total (electricity and fuel) energy needs of the US by 2050. If they extend the scenario to 2100, solar energy supplies over 90%, and together with other renewables, 100% of the total US energy demand with a corresponding 92% reduction in energy-related carbon dioxide emissions compared to the 2005 levels. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421508004072 Local Study
The developing world’s first and largest (at the time of its inauguration in 2004) on-grid solar photovoltaic (PV) power plant, the 1MWp polycrystalline silicon-based PV plant and connected with the distribution network of Cagayan Electric Power & Light Co., Inc. (CEPALCO) in Cagayan de Oro City, has completed its third year of commercial operations with greater than expected annual energy production. The power plant has generated electricity more than the expected annual energy generation 4,169,100 kWh or an average of 1,389,700 annually. It produced 10% higher than the expected annual energy generation of 1,261,400 kWh.
As of today, the PV plant supplies the whole community of no less than 900 CEPALCO residential consumers. The capability of the proposed PV plant indicates that it will be able to supply the CEPALCO distribution network with not less than 14,000,000 kWh of electricity annually, which is equal to not less than 30,000 barrels of fuel oil per year. The proposed PV plant, with a total installed capacity of at least 10-MWp shall be constructed over a period of five years and expand electricity generation. http://www.cepalco.com.ph/solar.php
Manganese is a metallic element abundant in Kabankalan, Negros Occidental that could be acquired at Oriental Ore & Mineral Ventrures Corp. or Libertad Fuentes. Having its metallic and semi-conductor ability it is used in hardening steel. With these properties, it could be compared to silicon to alternate the component of a solar cell. The PV power plants have been proven to be useful all over the world. People are now finding a way to make use of the solar energy through the solar panels. That includes the 30 hectare PV power plant in Cagayan de Oro and the under construction project in the US.
Solar energy is an energy that could be used to generate electricity. In which manganese is a metallic semi-conductor which can be used in constructing a solar cell.
Chapter Three contains five parts: (1) Materials, (2) Treatments and Research Design, (3) Procedures, (4) Data Gathering , and (5) Data Analysis Procedure. Part one, Materials, enumerates the materials used in conducting the study. Part two, Treatments and Research, deals with the nature of the study the plan for carrying out of the study and variables used. Part three, Procedures, describes the steps or procedures in conducting the study. Part four, Data Gathering, enumerates the data gathered and describes the process of gathering data. Part five, Data Analysis Procedure ,presents the details regarding the statistical tools employed and analyzing the results of the study.
Gathering of Materials
Making a solar cell
Assembling the pieces of the solar panel
Connecting the cells
Building the Panel Box
Wiring the Panel
Sealing the Panel
Measuring the volts (V) it generated
Figure 2: The procedure of conducting the study.
Materials and Equipment
A. Gathering of Materials
Solar cell plates
Wooden Board (36 x 18 inches)
Copper wire / Tabbing wire
B. Making a Solar cell
Glass plates / solar cell plates
C. Assembling the pieces of the Solar panel
Wooden Board (36 x 18 inches)
D. Connecting the cells
Manganese solar cell
E. Building the Solar panel
F. Wiring the Panel
G. Sealing the Panel
H. Measuring the Volts (V) it generated
I. Evaluating Data
C. Procurement of Preparation of Materials
D. The manganese alloy will be acquired from Kabankalan City, Negros Occidental. The battery, solar cell plates, wooden board, copper / tabbing and bus wires, inverter, alligator clips and plexiglass will be purchased at the local hardware. E. In making the solar cell, the glass plates (4.5 x 3 inches) must be cleaned with ethyl alcohol. It will be then tested for its conductivity by the use of a multimeter. When the conductive side was established, the conductive side of the plate should be placed up and the other conductive side down. Transparent tape will be applied to the plates. The tape will be placed along either of the long side of the plates to overlap 1mm (1/25 inch) of the edges. The manganese alloy will be attached to a plate, it will be glued. F. A shallow dish filled with dye will be prepared. The manganese-alloy-coated plate, coated side down, will be soaked in the dye for 10 minutes. The other plate will be cleaned with ethyl alcohol and it will be retested to find its conductive side. With the use of a marker, the side that doesn’t conduct will be marked with a plus sign (+).
A pencil will be used to cover the whole surface of the other plate. G. The manganese-alloy-coated plate will be taken out of the dye. It will be rinsed with de-ionized water and then with alcohol. In order to test the solar cell, an alligator clip will be attached to the exposed coated sections on either side of the solar cell. The testing will be done with the use of multimeter. The black wire of the multimeter to the clip will be connected to the clip connected to the manganese alloy coating. The red wire of the multimeter will be connected to the clip connected to the carbon coating (one with the pencil). H. In making the solar panel, the wooden board (36 x 18 inches) will be prepared. All of the tabbing wires were measured and cut; it will be made sure to cut two pieces for each cell.
The backs of the cells will be soldered. I. The cells will be connected. The cells will be glued to the wooden board. An extra inch was left at both ends of the board. The cells will be soldered together. Then the first row will be connected using the bus wire and the second row will also be connected. A panel box will made where the solar panel can be placed. The final bus wires will be connected to a diode then the wires will be connected. The solar panel will be then connected to the batteries that are also connected to an inverter that converts direct current to alternating current to be available for usage. J. Evaluation and organizing will be done by the researchers.
K. Research Design
L. In this study, the researchers will be using Post-test-only Control Group Design in Complete Randomized Design to achieve the goal of the study. The independent variable is the component of each of the solar panel. The dependent variables in this study are the mean electricity production in volts (V), mean capability of durability, and the mean market acceptability rating. M. The electricity production in volts (V), mean capability of durability, mean market acceptability rating and was determined by the given formulas. N. The results of the study will be processed and analyzed using the new mean and standard deviation as descriptive statistical tool. O.
P. Variables and Treatments
Q. The independent variable is the component of each of the solar panel. The dependent variables in this study are the mean electricity production in volts (V), mean capability of durability, and the mean market acceptability rating. The study has a maximum of two treatments with ten trials. Each treatment will be given one sample to be measured of the electricity it can generate. Treatment A will have manganese as main component in its solar cells while, treatment B will have silicon as main component in its solar cells. R.
T. Research Lay-out
V. Treatment A
W. Treatment B
X. Trial A
AA. Trial B
AD. Trial C
AG. Trial D
AJ. Trial E
AM. Trial F
AP. Trial G
AS. Trial H
AV. Trial I
AY. Trial J