Module I. Classificationally meaningful characteristics of the text as an integral and independent object of investigation. Lecture 6. Conceptual variability of linguistic interpretations of the text essence and status and their reflections in the models of the text descriptions. Problem for discussion
Evolution of the text description approaches. Models of the text descriptions. Grounds for the chosen models and schemes of the text descriptions as a scientific object. It has already been mentioned that despite the fact that there are many publications devoted to problems of text linguistics. There does not exist an adequate definition of the text that would find satisfaction with all researchers. The difficulties that arise when trying to work out an universally acceptable definition of the text can be explained by the fact that scholars study the text in its various aspects : grammatical, stylistic, semantic, functional and so on.
The text can be studied as a product ( text grammar) or as a process (theory of text). The text-as-a-product approach is focused on the text on the text cohesion, coherence, topical organization, illocutionary structure and communicative functions; the text-as-a-process perspective studies the text production, reception and interpretation.
Text can be understood as an instance of (spoken or written) language use ( an act of parole) , a relatively self-contained unit of communication. As a “communicative occurrence” it meets seven criteria of textuality (the constitutive principles of textual communication): cohesion, coherence, intentioanality, acceptability, informativity, situationality, and intertextuality and three regulative principles of textual communication: efficiency, effectiveness and approapriateness.(cf. de Beaugrande and Dressler 1981, Maljaer 1991) 1. Regular Principles of Textual Communiction.
The principle of efficiency requires that a text should be used with a minimum effort hence the use of plain ( stereotyped and unimaginative) language.
Which, however booring and unimpressive, is easy to produce and comprehend. In contrast, effectiveness presumes leaving a strong impression and the creation of favourable conditions for attaining a communicative goal; this presupposes the use of creative ( original, imaginative) language which, however effective, may lead to communicative breakdown. The principle of appropriateness attempts to balance off the two above mentioned principles by seeking an accord between the text setting and standards of textuality. Common text features.
Some common text features found in books are Table of Contents, Glossary, Index, Bold Words, Headings and Titles, Maps, Diagrams, Illustrations and Charts. Why is Understanding Text Features an important reading strategy? Text Features help us to identify the big ideas and topics that the author is focusing on. Visual text features such as maps and charts help to support the information the author presents in the text. How do we use text features to help us understand what we are reading?
Before reading, preview the kinds of text features throughout the book. Think about what the big ideas the author wants you to remember.
Make sure to read captions Functional Classification The functional classification identifies illocutionary text types according to the type of the dominating illocutionary act (see 10.2): representative or assertive type (e.g. research reports, public notices, administrative texts, weather forecasts, diaries, CVs, lectures), directive type (e.g. commands, orders, invitations, instructions, directions, giving advice), expressive type (e.g. apologies, thank-you notes, greeting, condolences, compliments, toasts, congratulations), commissive type ( e.g. promises , pledges, swears, offers, vows, contracts, bets), declarative or performative type (e.g. , nominations, appointments, dismissals, accussations:
I find you guilty as charged, marriage ceremonies, testaments, certificates). Texts viewed from this perspective satisfy diverse communicative needs of the society members. Situational Classification The situational classification sorts out texts according to the sphere of activity (e.g., private, official or public, such as a private letter, a letter addressed to an institution) and form of communication (dialogical and monological, spoken and written texts).
Strategic Classification The strategic classification deals primarily with the topic and the ways of its expansion 9 the term slohove postupy is used in Slovak stylistics to denote macrocompositional principles, cf. Mistrik 1997): narrative, descriptive, and argumentative.
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