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Temperature Essay Topics & Paper Examples

Balloons Paper

Why does a hot air balloon float even though it is so heavy? Hot air balloons float because the buoyancy force of the hot air is more than the weight. Buoyancy occurs because the hot air has a lower density than the cooler outside air. This lower density air weighs less than the air it replaces and that difference is the buoyancy. What makes balloons float when they are full of air but not float when they are deflated? Balloons float when they are full of hot air because the hot air weighs less than the air that is in the chamber which results in a floating balloon. Starting with a hot air balloon, figure out how to make the…

Determination of Heat of Solution

ABSTRACT Thermodynamic values can be determined using the Vant Hoff isochore method. This method entails the use of equilibrium systems to determine the change in enthalpy of the solution, which can b related to the change in internal energy of the solution. The van’t Hoff isochore relates the equilibrium constant of a chemical reaction at one temperature to the equilibrium constant of the same reaction at a different temperature, allowing it to be worked out for all temperatures if it is known for one. The experiment used the solution of toluene and naphthalene to determine the change in enthalpy. The mole fractions and the tempterature of recrylstallizations were graphed and the slope was determined. From the slope the change in…

Heat of Neutralization

The purpose of this lab was to: * Determine the heat of neutralization for the reaction of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and hydrochloric acid (HCI). Requirement The heat of neutralization (∆Hneutzn ) is the heat transferred when 1 mol of an acid reacts with 1 mol of a base. This heat is generally reported in either kilojoules per mole (kJ/mol) or kilocalories per mole (kcal mol). The reaction of HCI and NaOH solutions is shown in Equation 1. HCI(aq) + NaOH(aq) H20(l) + NaCI(aq) (Eq. 1) The heat of neutralization for a reaction cannot be measured directly. However, the heat transferred during a neutralization reaction can be calculated from laboratory data. Glassware: (2) 150-mL beaker, graduated cylinder, glass rod, (2) thermometer…

Pre-Lab Report Density of Liquids and Solids

Purpose of the experiment: The purpose of this lab is to help understand how to resolve the density of liquids and solids. Also, the lab is supposed to teach us how to record lab data and how to measure volume and mass the correct way. Lastly, it’s designed to help us understand significant values and its relationship to measurements and data recording. Lab Techniques: One technique that will be used during this lab is comparing the accuracy (absolute & percent errors) of your calculated densities to accepted literature values. Also, learn how to determine the precision for each of your measurements and compare results. We will find out the density of water, hexane, zinc, lead, copper and know which is…

Separating the Components of “Panacetin”

Introduction: The purpose of this experiment is to investigate the composition of compounds in Panacetin. Generally, it is made up of sucrose, aspirin and an unknown component, either acetanilide or phenacetin. SinceBy using different techniques, such as filtration, extraction, and evaporation, those three components have been isolated out, which is based on varies solubility and acid-based properties. The percentage of composition of Panacetin are also found, which is based on the mass of three dried components. The process: “panacetin” + Dichloromethane Solid sucrose + aspirin + unknown component (By Filtration) Aspirin + unknown components + NaOH aqueous layer + organic layer Aqueous layer + HCl aspirin (By filtration) Organic layer Unknown (By Evaporation) Procedure and Observation: 0.30093 g of panacetin…

Density Lab Write Up

Abstract The purpose of this experiment was to identify whether density is an extensive or intensive physical property. By using water displacement, the volumes of the paper clip samples were measured and the masses were obtained by using an electronic balance. Each mass and volume was unique to their sample so by using their values, density was used to identify substances in the lab. After conducting the experiment, the results showed that there was a positive slope between the different paper clip samples’ masses and their volumes. It was concluded from this pattern that density is an extensive property. Introduction In science, there are two physical properties that are used to classify certain substances; extensive and intensive. Extensive physical properties…

Effects of Climatic Elements on Livestock Production

INTRODUCTION Climatic elements have direct effect on the system of animal production, body physiology and animal behaviour, feed supply and quality, proliferation of pests and parasites as well as preservation of animal products (Samson et al., 2011) A number of climatic elements such as temperature, rainfall, humidity, radiant energy, air movement, light, altitude etc. greatly influence and interact with the performance of livestock production. Similarly, they also cause major effects on animal physiology, behaviour and productivity through their individual or separate effects but, more often, by their combinations with other environmental factors. The influence of climate on animal production (including animal body functions, behaviours and productive abilities) may be direct or indirect. In either way, systems of animal husbandry or…

Basic Control Mechanisms of Thermoregulatory Process in Livestock

Introduction Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different (Wikipedia, 2012). Thermoregulation could also be referred to as the mechanisms and control systems used by the body to balance thermal inputs and thermal losses so as to maintain its core temperature nearly constant (Monique, 2002). This process is one aspect of homeostasis: a dynamic state of stability between an animal’s internal environment and its external environment (the study of such processes in zoology has been called ecophysiology or physiological ecology) (Wikipedia, 2012). If the body is unable to maintain a normal temperature and it increases significantly above normal, a condition known as hyperthermia occurs and…

Types of Thermometers

Thermometers A thermometer is a device or instrument used for measuring temperature. There are many different types of thermometers; however each one is based on a physical property of a thermometric (temperature measuring) substance that differs in a measurable way with temperature. Some of the physical properties that vary with temperature are volume, resistance and color. A physical property that increases or decreases with temperature can be used to measure temperature. This is called a thermometric property. Liquid-In-Glass Thermometers There are two types of liquid-in-glass thermometers: 1) Mercury-In-Glass Thermometers 2) Alcohol-In-Glass Thermometers. A liquid in glass thermometer uses mercury or alcohol as its thermometric substance. Its thermometric property is volume and it is used to measure the temperature by allowing…

Color Band Resistors

RESISTOR A resistor is a component of a circuit that resists the flow of electrical current. It has two terminals across which electricity must pass, and it is designed to drop the voltage of the current as it flows from one terminal to the other. Resistors are primarily used to create and maintain known safe currents within electrical components. Resistors are coated with paint or enamel, or covered in molded plastic to protect them. Because they are often too small to be written on, a standardized color-coding system is used to identify them. The first three colors represent ohm value, and a fourth indicates the tolerance, or how close by percentage the resistor is to its ohm value. This is…

Compare and Contrast

While penguins are technically birds, they have many distinct attributes that set them apart from the much of the animal class Aves. Penguins thrive in many different climates including tropical and temperate zones. These animals can survive temperatures below -100 degrees Fahrenheit. Antarctic penguins have a three-tiered insulation system. First, they have feathers that act like tiles on a roof, with longer feathers overlapping smaller, fluffier ones. In essence, water-proofing. Beneath that, penguins have a thick layer of fat that provides an extra buffer from the elements and retains body heat. A third special adaptation in the penguin that isn’t found in most birds is its ability to recycle its own body heat. Blood flows pre-cooled to the extremities and…

Discussion of Joel

1.The mechanisms of heat loss contributing to Joel’s feelings of coldness are conduction, due to the loss of his hat somewhere on the trail and also his wet clothes; convention, which is happening because of the cold wind blowing; and lastly evaporation which is occurring as he breathes in the cold air and exhales it as warm moist air. 2.To help Joel maintain a normal body temperature, his body will begin to send signals to conserve and generate heat. This can be done through vasoconstriction which keeps sweat glands inactive and conserves heat, and also by shivering which generate heat through muscle contractions. 3.Thermoregulation, a homeostatic process, is responsible for initiating and controlling the physiological responses helping to keep Joel…

Infrared Film and Thermography

Thermogram of a traditional building in the background and a “passive house” in the foreground Infrared thermography (IRT), thermal imaging, and thermal video are examples of infrared imaging science. Thermal imaging cameras detect radiation in the infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum (roughly 9,000–14,000 nanometers or 9–14 µm) and produce images of that radiation, called thermograms. Since infrared radiation is emitted by all objects above absolute zero according to the black body radiation law, thermography makes it possible to see one’s environment with or without visible illumination. The amount of radiation emitted by an object increases with temperature; therefore, thermography allows one to see variations in temperature. When viewed through a thermal imaging camera, warm objects stand out well against…

Gas Laws Lab

Introduction: The four basic physical properties of a gas sample are pressure, volume, temperature, and number of moles. The volume simply indicates the volume of the container since a gas will take up all space available to it. The temperature indicates the average kinetic energy of the gas particles. For gases, the temperature must be converted to the Kelvin unit. The pressure of the gas indicates the number of collisions with each other and the wall of the container. The number of moles indicates the amount of gas particles. Gases do not have a definite shape of volume. Gases spread out into their container and occupy the entire volume available, which means they are free to move around and have…

Analysis of Aluminium – Analytical Chemistry

Introduction Atomic Absorption relies on the principle that each atom absorbs light of a particular wavelength, and hence at that wavelength the quantity of that absorption is proportional to the elements concentration. The first technique used in this analysis was Electrothermal Atomisation, known as Graphite Furnace-AAS. The components of a Graphite Furnace AAS are similar to that of Flame AAS, they more or less use the same components, with the exception of the component used to heat the sample. For a Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometer the schematic is: Hollow Cathode Lamp → Graphite Tube → Monochromator → Detector The Hollow Cathode Lamp (HCL) is a selective/specific light source made from the element of interest. The HCL contains an inert…

Diffusion of Innovation

I certify that I am the author of this assignment. Any assistance I received in its preparation is fully acknowledged and disclosed within this document. I certify that I have not received help from any unauthorized persons. I have cited any and all sources, both print and electronic, from which I have used data, ideas, or words, either quoted or paraphrased. My cited sources are indicated within this document using APA citation style. I also certify that this assignment was prepared by me especially for the course as listed above. 1a. Product Chosen There are a few battery-powered electric jackets on the market today, but the downside of the stuff is most come with bulky heating insert with heavy batteries…

Recrystallization: Solvent and Solubility

ABSTRACT Recrystallization is the primary method for purifying solid organic compounds through the differences in solubility at different temperatures. In this experiment, a suitable solvent was first determined. Acetanilide was produced by acetylation of aniline with acetic anhydride. The crude acetanilide was dissolved in a solvent in a heating water bath. The hot solution was filtered and the filtrate, cooled slowly in an ice bath as crystals started forming out. As the compound crystallizes from the solution, molecules of other compounds were excluded from the crystals to obtain pure acetanilide. INTRODUCTION Recrystallization, referred to as the second crystallization, is a method in which two crystallization processes are performed. It is a process of dissolving the solid to be crystallized in…

Heat of Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide

Abstract Our main purpose is to familiarise ourselves with a method to find the heat of decomposition of a compound (hydrogen peroxide). Firstly, we will be looking at information about calorimeter and what it meant by heat of decomposition. Also, we will try to understand why we have to subtract the heat absorbed by the calorimeter to find the heat of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. Therefore, we found the heat capacity of calorimeter. After that, the enthalpy of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide was calculated by finding the amount of heat lost by solution and the heat absorbed by the calorimeter. Then, the heat absorbed by the calorimeter was subtracted from the heat lost by the solution to determine the amount…

The Mahogany Tree

The branch of material science known as thermal analysis is the study of the change of temperature within the properties of materials. A number of different properties are studied using this method including mass, dimension, volume, stiffness, damping, heat transfer and temperature. Other concepts can be employed within the method as well, determining how temperature relates to light and sound. The main purpose of the entire discipline is to find how temperature impacts other facets of physics. When conducting experiments with thermal analysis, researchers generally control the temperature in a standardized format. This is accomplished by either keeping, increasing, or decreasing the temperature at a constant rate or working with a variety of predetermined different temperatures. Adjustments can be made…

Biology, How Body Shape Affects Heat Loss

Introduction Small organisms have a surface area that is large enough, compared with their volume. As a results they lose heat rapidly when the environmental temperature is lower than their body temperature. However when the animal gets bigger their volume increases at a larger rate than their surface area, so the surface to volume ratio decreases. Adaptations help organisms to survive in their habitats. Adaptations can be structural, behavioral and physiological. Cold resistant organisms evolved in various ways to cope with very low temperatures. Some animals hibernate, take shelter or migrate to warmer countries. Others, such as Antarctic seals have warm fur and a thick layer of fat for insulation. Antarctic seals are adapted to live in the sea and…

Science Behind the Galileo Thermometer

The Galileo thermometer, used to measure temperature, is mainly used for home décor nowadays. The stylish thermometer used in people’s homes today is based off of a thermo scope Galileo invented in the early 1600’s. Although not exact, the Galileo thermometer is moderately accurate. The thermometer has several glass blown bubbles, with a colored liquid inside which is just for decoration. The bubbles have metal tags attached to the bottom of them with an engraved number on it, for example seventy, for seventy degrees Fahrenheit. The glass bubbles float in a water filled glass tube, which may vary in size. The glass bubble floating, usually on its own in the middle of the tube, is what the temperature is approximately,…

Protective Equipment Is to Reduce Employee Exposure to Hazards

Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction products.[1] Slower oxidative processes like rustingor digestion are not included by this definition. The flame is the visible portion of the fire. If hot enough, the gases may become ionized to produce plasma.[2] Depending on the substances alight, and any impurities outside, the colorof the flame and the fire’s intensity will be different. Fire in its most common form can result in conflagration, which has the potential to cause physical damage through burning. Fire is an important process that affects ecological systems across the globe. The positive effects of fire include stimulating growth and maintaining various ecological systems. Fire…

Thermistor Study

A thermistor is a type of resistor whose resistance varies significantly with temperature, more so than in standard resistors. The word is a portmanteau of thermal and resistor. Thermistors are widely used as inrush current limiters, temperature sensors, self-resetting overcurrent protectors, and self-regulating heating elements. Thermistors differ from resistance temperature detectors (RTD) in that the material used in a thermistor is generally a ceramic or polymer, while RTDs use pure metals. The temperature response is also different; RTDs are useful over larger temperature ranges, while thermistors typically achieve a higher precision within a limited temperature range, typically ?90 °C to 130 °C.[1] Basic operation Assuming, as a first-order approximation, that the relationship between resistance and temperature is linear, then: :…

Temperature-dependent impact tests

Purpose This lab was performed to fully comprehend the temperature dependency of the fracture toughness of the Aluminum and Steel. It was also executed to discover the ductile-brittle transition of each. Summary The experiment solidified the hypothesis that the 6061 aluminum has no ductile-to-brittle transition do to its FCC crystal structure. The 1018 steel has a ductile-to-brittle transition temperature of -31ºC due to its BCC crystal structure. Results Figure 1: Graph of fracture energy vs. temperature for entire class data From Figure 1 one can determine that steel has a ductile-to-brittle transition temperature at -31ºC requiring a large increase in energy required to fracture over the temperature range. Also it can be determined that aluminum has no ductile to brittle…

Engineering Materials Essay on Polypyrrole

1.0 Introduction to Polypyrrole The reason of this report is to determine the effects of temperature on the thermal, physical and mechanical properties of Polypyrrole. And then conclude the possible applications of this polymer according to its properties. Known as the conducting polymer, it is a black insoluble material according to Richard Doyle (2011), usually in the form of a thin film. It was the first polyacetylene-derivative to show high conductivity. Over the years it has become one of the most studied and extensively applied conducting polymer due to the reason being that it can be easily prepared, has high conductivity and has relatively greater stability amongst other heteroatom containing polymers. It is made up of monomers that are amines…

Yeast Population Lab Report

How Environmental Factors Affect a Yeast Population’s Ability to Reproduce OBJECTIVE The objective of this experiment is to emphasize the influence that limiting factors have on a population. This lab tests yeast, a common component in baking, against two environmental factors (changes in temperature or concentration) to see what effect these have on the population dynamics of the yeast over a period of 72 hours. There are two sections of tests included in this experiment: biotic and abiotic factors. The abiotic factor being tested here is what effect the temperature of the yeast’s environment has on its ability or inability to reproduce efficiently. The lab tests the yeast in three separate temperature settings: a cold temperature (4ᵒC), room temperature (22ᵒC),…

The Impact of Pre-Cooling as an Intervention Strategy to Minimize Cardiovascular system

The aim of this report was to investigate whether the utilization of pre-cooling (cooling vest) prior to a 10, 000m road-race run within a hot and humid environment, would result in improved performance. The report also aimed to examine any performance-related effects, and their underlying physiological mechanisms. Fourteen (n=14) well-trained adult runners participated in two 10,000m-time trials, spaced 72 hours apart. Ambient conditions of both the control and experimental conditions were T= 32.5 °C, rel. humidity= 65% and T= 32.8’C, rel. humidity= 63% respectively. Procedure consisted of a 30 minute warm up (20 minutes steady state running at RPE 13, 10 minutes individualized stretching activity). During the warm up, the control condition required participants to wear a normal tee shirt,…

Sun’s atmosphere

Dust and ice around the Sun’s atmosphere were drawn together by gravitational force to form a cold mass which we now call Earth. The heat produced by meteorite activity, compaction and radioactivity caused the earth to melt, thereby reorganizing elements of varying density into three layers called core, mantle and crust. Gases such as hydrogen, nitrogen, water vapor, nitrogen, methane and carbon dioxide escaped from earth’s gravity. These gases formed a layer around the earth called atmosphere. All these gases are made of basic units called elements, which can be further broken down to atoms. Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen and another 21 naturally-occurring elements are critical for the existence of life on earth. As the temperature of the earth lowered,…

Concentration of enzymes

CONCLUSION: Based on the results obtained from the experiment it can be concluded that the concentration of enzymes influences the rate of a chemical reaction. If enzyme concentration is decreased then the reaction rate will also decrease. If there is sufficient enzyme to bind with substrate then the reaction will proceed fast and if there are insufficient enzymes present then the reaction will slow down DISCUSSION: It was predicted that with the increase of concentration of amylase solution, the time took to break down starch would decrease . This was proved correct , if basing on just these trials . The graph shows how with every single increase of the concentration , the amount of drops until the mixture fails…

A Misty Morning

It was one of the last days of December when I experienced a misty morning. Mist in Yangon is pretty uncommon to be seen as we have tropical weather.However, on that particular day, the whole atmosphere was covered with mist. And it lasted for a few hours in the morning. The coldness and the freshness of the atmosphere gave the energy to start a new day.It feels like living in a mountain city like May Myo.On that day, I rose earlier than usual with the freezing wind that blew into my room.Looking out of the window, the chill and the fresh smell of the winter morning welcomed me gladly.At first I was quite amazed to notice the mist.Because it was…