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Tell Me About Blood Essay

In this paper I will answer some questions about blood and related issues. Some of the questions I will answer are: what is the significance of a lower than normal haematocrit? what is erythropoiesis?why would the level of leukocytes be higher in an individual who has been infected with a parasitic disease. In regions where malaria is endemic, some people build up immune resistance to the malaria pathogen. Which WBCs are responsible for the immune response against pathogens? How do they function?

A 13 year old is studying blood in school, and has asked some questions that haven’t been answered in class. I will answer these questions In a way that a young teenager would be able to understand.

What is the significance of a lower than normal hematocrit ? What is the effect of a bacterial infection on the haematocrit? A test called haematocrit is the testing of the proportion of red blood cells compared to all blood cells in a certain volume. A lower than normal finding on a hemotocrit could mean anemia, a large number of white blood cells due to illness infection Leukemia, Lymphoma or other white blood cell disorders, vitamin or mineral deficiency or recent blood loss. The effect of a bacterial infection on the hemotocrit would cause a decrease of the haematocrit.

Compare the development of lymphocytes with the development of other formed elements. There are two kinds of lymphocytes, B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes. Lymphocytes begin in the bone marrow, if they stay there then they are B lymphocytes, if they move to the thymus they are called T lymphocytes. The other formed elements of blood start with a mixture of plasma that develop through erythrocytes and the platelets are formed by megakaryocytes exploding. What is erythropoesis? Which factors speed up and slow down erythropoesis? Erythropoesis is the process of making new red blood cells. This begins in red bone marrow. Proerythroblasts divide several times until it reaches the end of its development, then rejects the nucleus and becomes an reticulocyte. After being released from the red bone marrow a few days later they turn into erythrocytes. Erythropoiesis speeds up when there is a lack of oxygen to body tissues and slows down when there is sufficient oxygenation throughout the body.

Explain what would happen if a person with type B blood were given a transfusion of type O blood. If a person with type B blood was given a transfusion of Type O there will be no negative affects. Type O blood is the universal donor as there is no antigen on them that would be attacked by the anti-A antibody on the B type blood cells.

During an anatomy and physiology exam your asked to view white blood cells in prepared slides of standard human blood smears. Based on the observations below what is the name and function of each WBC? A.WBC has a round nucleus surrounded by a blue halo of cytoplasm with no visible granules. This WBC is a lymphocyte. The function of a lymphocyte is an immediate response of the immune system to defend against known pathogens ASAP. B.WBC contains dense blue purple granules that hides the nucleus. This WBC is a basophil. Their function is to store histamine and are involved in a response to inflammation. C. WBC has a u-shaped nucleus and a bluish cytoplasm with no visible granules.

This WBC is called a monocyte. The function of a monocyte is much the same as the neutrophil, they eat invading pathogens to help protect the body. Monocytes also eat dead and damaged cells to keep the body healthy. D.WBC contain small, pale lilac granules and a four lobed nucleus. This WBC is a neutrophil. The function of neutrophils are to eat bacteria and some other foreign material. The membrane of the neutrophil surrounds the invading bacteria and then destroy it. E.WBC contains red orange green any two lobes nucleus. This WBC is an eosinophil. Eosinophils have a few functions, they are part of the inflammatory process, the trap substances, kill cells, and have anti-parasitic and bactericidal activity.

Why would the level of leukocytes be higher in an individual who has been infected with a parasitic disease? Leukocytes help defend the body from infections, as someone is getting sick from a disease leukocytes target the threat to keep the body healthy and to destroy the threat. When a doctor looks at the results from a complete blood count of CBC and see that there is an elevation of white blood cells he knows that there is an infection or immune issue.

In regions where malaria is endemic, some people build up immune resistance to the malaria pathogen. Which WBC is responsible for the immune response against pathogens? How do they function? Lymphocytes are responsible for the response against pathogens. First you must be exposed to the pathogen, after that the lymphocytes know what to look for. When you are re exposed to the disease your body is prepared for it and keeps you from getting sick or at the very least from getting the full blown sickness.

What is the function of prothrombinase and thrombin in clotting? Explain how the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of blood clotting differ. The function of prothombinase is to turn into prothrombin in to thrombin to make blood clot, which then stops blood loss. The difference between extrinsic and intrinsic is where the chemical connections comes from. The extrinsic bond happens outside of the damaged blood vessel when blood seeps into other tissue. The intrinsic bond happens inside of the damaged blood vessel. With both pathways after the chemical bond is triggered a blood clot begins to form and stop the bleeding.

This paper explains a few questions about blood in a language that a young teenager should be able to understand. The questions answered explain about the different white blood cells, what they look like and their functions. This paper also explains about blood transfusions and clotting.

References
basophil (blood cell) — Encyclopedia Britannica. (n.d.). Retrieved June 21, 2014, from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/55316/basophil Blood
Types Chart | Blood Group Information | American Red Cross. (n.d.). Retrieved June 20, 2014, from http://www.redcrossblood.org/learn-about-blood/blood-types The clotting process – World Federation of Hemophilia. (n.d.). Retrieved June 21, 2014, from http://www.wfh.org/en/page.aspx?pid=635 Complete Blood Count (CBC): Healthwise Medical Information on eMedicineHealth. (n.d.). Retrieved June 20, 2014, from http://www.emedicinehealth.com/complete_blood_count_cbc-health/article_em.htm erythropoiesis – definition of erythropoiesis in the Medical dictionary – by the Free Online Medical Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia. (n.d.). Retrieved June 20, 2014, from http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/erythropoiesis Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and other methods to enhance oxygen transport. (n.d.). Retrieved June 20, 2014, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2439521/ Hematocrit test Why it’s done – Tests and Procedures – Mayo Clinic. (n.d.). Retrieved June 20, 2014, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/hematocrit/basics/why-its-done/prc-20015009 Lymphocytes and the Cellular Basis of Adaptive Immunity – Molecular Biology of the Cell – NCBI Bookshelf. (n.d.). Retrieved June 21, 2014, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK26921/ What is an Eosinophil? | Definition & Function | CCED. (n.d.). Retrieved June 21, 2014, from http://www.cincinnatichildrens.org/service/c/eosinophilic-disorders/conditions/eosinophil/ What Is the Function of Monocytes? (with picture). (n.d.). Retrieved June 21, 2014, from http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-the-function-of-monocytes.htm White blood cells – Google Search. (n.d.). Retrieved June 21, 2014, from https://www.google.com/search?es_sm=93&biw=1366&bih=667&tbm=isch&sa=1&q=White+blood+cells&oq=White+blood+cells&gs_l=img.3…3414.9913.0.10016.20.11.0.0.0.0.0.0..0.0….0…1c.1.47.img..20.0.0.xIhwmJNe2D8 White Blood Cells. (n.d.). Retrieved June 21, 2014, from http://peer.tamu.edu/curriculum_modules/OrganSystems/module_1/whatweknow5.htm


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