How have the fields of psychology and sociology contributed to our understanding of organizational behavior? The science that seeks to measure, explain and sometimes change the behavior of human and other animals; otherwise known as psychology has contributed greatly to our understanding of organizational behavoir (Robbins S. , & Judge T. , 2007). The study of organizations through the eyes of psychologist views the organization as the basic unit of analysis (Husain 1992).
Psychologist such as personality theorists, counselling psychologists and most importantly industrial and organizational psychologist, just to name a few, have been instrumental in the understanding and aiding persons in factors of relevance i. e. , employee-selection techniques and job satisfaction that could be detrimental to job performance (Robbins et al. , 2007). Its growing research interest involves system-oriented dynamic study of organizational-human behavior interactions (Husain 1992).
“The degree to which the various fields of psychology have provided analytical and descriptive content relevant to understanding individuals and group behavior is impressive” (Husain 1992). As for sociology, one can hardly speak of organizational behavior without making some reference to sociology regarding its contributions to understanding how individuals and groups respond in organizations (Robbins et al. , 2007). Sociology “studies people in relation to their social environment or culture” (Robbins et al. , 2007).
In varying ways and degrees, sociology has been port of the effort to understand why units function as they do and why individuals in organizations behave the way they do (Husain 1992). How does globalization affect a manager’s people skills? 12 Critical people skills will ensure the success of an organization doing business across borders are establishing credibility, evaluating people, training and development, organizational change, innovation and building global teamwork (Halton 2003).
Managers of the twenty-first century with the rapid growth of globalization must be experts in managing change, achieving more for less and always keeping a keen eye on quality (Douglas 2002). Another important factory in establishing credibility is to establish relationships. Long dinners and rituals are often required overseas; relationships are indispensable in many foreign contexts (Halton 2003). Managers must also have the ability to judge base on fact not on prejudice, be positive and recognize that people are different, not inferior (Lobel 1990).
Why is it important to replace intuition with systematic study in our attempt to understand behavior within organizations? Although intuition has proven to be a valuable contributor in early stages of brain-storming, it can only provide a generalized idea or prediction of ones behaviour (Hummel 1990). “Systematic study improves our ability to make reasonable accurate predictions and explains behavior” (Summers D. , Boje D. , Dennehy, R. , & Rosile, G. , 1997). As defined by Robbins, systematic study is looking at relationships, attempting to attribute causes and effects and drawing conclusions based on scientific evidence (Robbins et al.
, 2007). Human beings are very complex, they are not alike which limits the ability to make simple, accurate and sweeping generalizations (as cited Summers et al. , 1997). People and groups are different and therefore differ in their perception of what is and what is not common sense; systematic study identifies these differences and arrives at a scientific explanation of who is right or wrong (Summers et al. , 1997). Explain what is meant by the term “workforce diversity”. In workforce diversity the focus is on the differences in people from the same country working in the same organization cohesively (Robbins et al. , 2007).
“Workforce diversity means that organizations are becoming more heterogeneous mix of people in terms of gender, age race, ethnicity and sexual orientation” (Robbins et al. , 2007). An organizations success can benefit from workforce diversity by creating an organizational environment that attracts people from diverse labor markets and promotes a competitive edge by recruiting the best people for the job regardless of ethnicity, age, gender or other individual characteristic (as cited D’Netto, B. , & Sohal, S. (D’Netto, B. , & Sohal, S. ; 1999).
Employers are beginning to recognize that the job market is comprised of people with many different values and lifestyles preferences and must therefore recognize, value and be more accommodating (Robbins et al. , 2007). References Douglas, M. (2002). Leadership Challenge at Sage. Industrial and Commercial Training, 34(3), 116. Retrieved April 13, 2007, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 208003741 D’Netto, B. , & Sohal, A. (1999). Human resource practices and workforce diversity: an empirical assessment. International Journal of Manpower, 20(8), 530. Retrieved April 26, 2007, from ABI/INFORM Global database.
(Document ID: 115719408). Halton, A. (2003). Working Globesmart: 12 People skills for Doing Business Across Borders. The Quality Management Journal, 10(4), 55. Retrieved April 27, 2007, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 446708861) Hummel, R. (1990). Intuition and the Public Manager. Public Administration Review, 50(4), 458. Retrieved April 20, 2007, from ABI/INFORM Global database. Husain, M. (1992). The Contributions of Psychology to the Study of Administrative Behaviour. The International Journal of Public Sector, 5(4), 15. Retrieved April 20, 2007, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 749822)