“A plan that emphasizes the parts may pay the cost of failing to consider the whole, and a plain that emphasizes the whole must pay the cost of failing get down to the real depth with respect to the parts.” – C. West Churchman
The broad definition of educational technology encompasses systems or designs of instruction. In this lesson, let’s discuss a symbol system or a systematic approach to instruction. The focus of systematic instructional planning is the student. Instruction begins with the definition of instructional objectives that consider the students’ needs, interest and readiness. On the basis of these objectives, the teacher selects the appropriate teaching methods to be used and, in turn, based on the teaching method selected, the appropriate learning experiences and appropriate materials, equipment and facilities will also be selected.
The use of learning materials, equipment and facilities necessitates assigning the appropriate personnel to assist the teacher and defining the role of any personnel involved in the preparation, setting and returning of these learning resources. The effective use of learning resources is dependent on the expertise of the teacher, the motivation level or responsiveness, and the involvement of the students in the learning process. With the instructional objective in mind, the teacher implements planned instruction with the use of the selected teaching method, learning activities, and learning materials with the help of other personnel whose role has been defined by the teacher. Examples of learning activities that the teacher can choose from, depending on his/ her instructional objective, nature of the lesson content, readiness of the students are;
* reporting or doing presentation
* creating judging
Some examples of learning resources for instructional use are;
* programmed materials
* television programs
* flat pictures
* slides and transparencies
* mock ups
* flannel board materials
* real objects
After instruction, teacher evaluates the outcome of instruction. From the evaluation results, teacher comes to know if the instructional objective was attained. If the instructional objective was attained, teacher proceeds to the next lesson going through the same cycle once more. If instructional objective was not attained, then teacher diagnoses what was learned in order to introduce a remedial measure to improved student performance and attainment of instructional objective.
1. Who is at the center of the chart? What does the central location in the chart mean? Answer: As depicted in the chart, the focus of systematic instructional planning is the student. To be able to give the appropriate methods, experiences, materials etc. the students or the learner is what we based for. Instruction begins with the definition of instructional objectives that consider the students’ needs, interest, and readiness.
2. What are the steps of the instructional process or the parts of a systematic instruction and what does each step mean? Answer: The steps of the instructional process or the parts of a systematic instruction and its meaning are the following: a. Define objectives- Instruction begins with the definition of instructional objectives that consider the students’ needs, interest, and readiness. b. Chose appropriate methods- On the basis of this objective, the teacher selects the appropriate teaching methods to be used. c. Select materials, equipments and facilities- The use of learning materials, equipment and facilities necessitates assigning the personnel to assist the teacher. d. Assign personal roles- Defining the role of any personnel involved in the preparation, setting and returning of this learning resources would also help in the learning process.
e. Implement the instruction- With the instructional objectives in mind, the teacher implements planned instructions with the use of the selective teaching method, learning activities, and learning materials with the help of other personnel whose role has been defined by the teacher. f. Evaluate outcomes- After instructions, teacher evaluates the outcome of instruction. From the evaluation results, teacher comes to know if the instructional objective was attained. g. Refine the process- If the instructional objective was attained, teacher proceeds to the next lesson going through the same cycle once more. If instructional objectives was not attained , then teacher diagnoses was not learned and finds out why it was not learned in order to introduced a remedial measure for improved student performance and attainment of instructional objectives. 3. In what way does the chart show the systematic or systems approach to instruction? Are the elements or phases of instruction independent of one another or do they relate to one another?
Answer: The chart show that each steps in the system approach to instruction are interrelated with each other. It is an orchestrated learning pattern with all parts harmoniously integrated into the whole. As a teacher, you must do each step in order to have a better learning process and the students or the learner must be your main focus. The phases or elements are connected to one another. If one element or one phase of the instructional process fails, the outcome which is the learning, is adversely affected. The attainment of the learning objectives is dependent on the synergy of all elements and all the factors involved in the process.
The ASSURE Model
The ASSURE Model, a procedural guide for planning and conducting instruction that incorporates media, assumes that instruction really is required. The ASSURE Model focuses on planning surrounding the actual classroom use of media. It is less ambitious than models of instructional development, which are intended to guide the entire process of designing instructional systems. ASSURE Model on the other hand, is meant for the use of individual instructor in planning everyday classroom use of media.
* The first step in planning is to identify the learners. You must know your students to select the best medium to meet the objectives. The audience be analyzed in terms of
(1) General characteristics
(2) Specific knowledge competencies – knowledge, skills, and attitude about the topic
(3) Learning style
* The objective may be derived from a course syllabus, stated in a textbook, taken from a curriculum guide, or developed by the instructor. They should be stated in terms of what the learner will be able to do as a result of instruction.
Select Media and Materials
* There are three options:
(1) Select available materials,
(2) Modify existing materials, or
(3) Design new materials
Utilize Media and Material
* First, preview the materials and practice your presentation. Next, prepare the class and ready the necessary equipment and facilities. Then present the material using showmanship techniques.
Require Learning Participation
* Learners must practice what they are expected to learn and should be reinforced for the correct response. The first time they are expected to perform the behavior called for in the objectives, they should not be examined. Instead, there should be activities within the lesson that allow learners to respond and receive feedback on the appropriateness of their response.
Evaluate and Revise
* After instruction, it is necessary to evaluate its impact and effectiveness. To get the total picture, you must evaluate the whole instructional process.
Instructional Approaches and Methods
1. Expository approach. A kind of approach wherein the teacher explains lessons which seem difficult. This involves a number of steps: a. Approach. Teacher establishes the correct mindset of the students. b. Presentation. The teacher applies effective devices to make the explanation clear and understandable. c. Application. Teacher tries to find out how well the lesson is absorbed by the students. 2. Deductive Method. Makes use with the generalization to begin with, followed by specific examples and situations to support the general statement.
b. Statement of a general idea. An effective paragraph has four (4) requisites, unity, coherence, organization and grammatical correctness.
c. Explanation of general idea:
Unity means the paragraph treats a singular thought or idea. Coherence. Sentences are closely related to each other and are linked together by the transitional devises. Organization. Concepts are well organized and they follow an order whether chronological or spatial. Grammatically correct means the paragraph is devoid of errors in grammar, particularly on agreement of tense. d. Illustration.
e. Evaluation 3. Demonstrative. Provides learners to understand, learn, and appreciate a particular subject matter demonstrated by the teacher. Steps: a. Purposing. The students decide what particular learning task to accomplish with the teacher allowing them to decide on their own. b. Planning. This phase includes setting of directions, what objectives to formulate, whom to deal with, how to accomplish the task and when to finish. c. Demonstration proper. Preparation of the materials needed for the demonstration lesson which includes physical arrangement of the classroom. d. Executing. This phase will ask the students to repeat what is demonstrated to them with the guidance of the teacher. e. Evaluating.
Guided Exploratory Approach
Process-oriented Method. This is the step-by-step acquisition of knowledge and skills.
Three major considerations:
a. The process emphasizes how to learn and NOT what to learn. b. It stresses the need for functional/relevant transfer of knowledge. c. It is concerned with the development of the intellect. 1. Inductive. Starts from the specific before arriving at a generalization.
c. Comparison and Abstraction. Analytical questions are raised.
2. Inquiry Teaching. This is commonly used in higher level thinking. In here, the teacher poses a problem, asks questions, and facilitates dialogues. Its overall goal include helping students learn how to ask questions, seek answers or solutions to problems, explore possibilities and form their own ideas about the lesson at hand. 3. Laboratory Method. A kind of teaching procedure that deals with investigation and experimentation and which normally involves firsthand experiences concerning materials and facts obtained.
Laboratory method may be:
a. Experimental. Emphasizes discovery of a solution to a problem either by problem solving or acquisition of information. b. Observational. Focuses on the acquisition of facts.
a. Orientation and Motivation. b. Work period. Teacher supervises students who are divided into workgroups. c. Culminating activities. A discussion participated in by the members of the group follows, to organize the findings. 4. Problem Solving. This is a teaching method that uses the scientific method in searching for information and for improving the reasoning process.
a. Sensing and Defining the problem
b. Formulating hypothesis
c. Testing for hypothesis
d. Analysis, interpretation of evaluation of findings
e. Formulating conclusion
This method is found effective in the opportunity it provides in the development of desirable attitudes such as critical thinking, and independence of mind, open-mindedness, and a sense of responsibility which are all vital in an independent study.
(1) Problem must be clear and concise. (2) Problem is adapted to the age, interest, skills of the students. (3) Use cooperative learning to ensure a more active participation of group members. (4) Furnish leading questions at every step to monitor progress of the undertaking. (5) Prepare supplementary materials to substitute for materials that are not available. (6) See to it that the process or procedure is done correctly and well. (7) Set criteria for evaluation.
5. Project Method. This is a type of method that requires students to construct projects as a result of a study/ research done.
(1) Project is reflective of the amount of understanding the students have for the concept developed. (2) It provides avenues for self-expression and creativity. (3) It develops desirable attitudes like resourcefulness, cooperation, independent judgment, industry, and responsibility. (4) Group projects enhance cooperation and sharing of ideas.
Guidance for Project Method:
(1) Set clear objectives for evaluation. (2) Encourage use of available local materials. (3) Assign projects according to the interests an ability of students. (4) Provide minimal supervision to set directions and monitor progress. (5) Projects must not be duplications of previously done output of students. Steps:
a. Purposing. The teacher must consider the needs, abilities, and interests of the learners. b. Planning. The students do their parts willingly and cooperatively when they planned their own activities. c. Executing. d. Evaluating.
Method that emphasizes the development of thinking skills, also referred to as “thinking operations”. The thinking skills that should be taught directly are: interpreting, comparing, criticizing, classifying, analyzing, summarizing, and creating. By giving higher order questions, students are made to think, analyze and evaluate. When students are trained to think they are able develop a framework for acquiring information and passing on this information. 1. Metacognitive. A method that requires students not only to acquire thinking skills but to monitor, control their commitment and attitude during the learning process. 2. Constructivism. This method regards the learner as the core of the learning process. 3. Reflective teaching. This method affords the student to reflect on their own experiences to give new meaning to them.
1. Cooperative Learning. Students work on activities in small heterogeneous groups and based on performance can receive rewards or recognition. It is a cooperative learning structure where students depend on one another and work together to achieve the shared goal. 2. Peer-mediated. A method wherein an older, brighter, and more responsible member of the class is requested to tutor, coach, instruct, teach other classmates. Peer tutoring may come in the following arrangements: a. Instructional peer tutoring. There is an age difference between the tutor and the tutee. b. Same age tutoring. c. Monitorial tutoring. d. Structural peer tutoring. e. Semi-structured peer tutoring.
3. Partner Learning. Students are paired, usually with whom they are familiar with and made to share their views/opinion about a particular issue or lesson at hand. 4. Inductive learning. A kind of learning method that allows learning to arrive to a generalization after starting from the specifics.
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