1. Refer to the last page.
2. Arrow pushing mechanism:
3. Refluxing is when the reactants are boiled and the vapor that is produced is cooled. When the vapor is cooled it changes back to its liquid state and returns to the flask.
4. The visual cue that allows you to determine that the first step of the reaction has gone to completion is the slowing down and eventual stopping of reflux. A substitution reaction occurs and yields Br, which poses a water-soluble group A anion.
5. A) The washes that are performed in part B are necessary because the RTILs are often contaminated with halide slats such as KBr, which would cause the RTIL to be cloudy. In order to remove the halide contamination washes must be performed until the water does not result in cloudiness and is pure.
B) The compound that is causing the cloudiness in the dichloromethane and AgNO3 is the aqueous layer that was removed using the separatory funnel. The compound that is precipitating from the aqueous solution is AgNO3.
6. The toxic effects of 1-methylimidazole on humans include; damage to upper respiratory tract, eyes and skin. Other toxic effects of 1-methylimidazole on humans is that it can cause skin burns, eye burns, corneal damage, respiratory tract burns, digestive tract burns, and severe damage to the digestive tract. The human toxicity of 1-bromohexane includes; irritation to eyes and skin if contact occurs, irritation to lungs and respiratory system if inhaled, and skin inflammation along with itching or blistering.
Some of the toxic effects that KPF6 has on humans are destruction of tissues in the membrane of the upper respiratory tract if inhaled, and burns on skin and eyes if contact occurs. Lastly, the human toxicity of dichloromethane includes; irritation of eyes, skin and mucous membranes. It also causes headache, drowsiness or other effects of the central nervous system especially in individuals who smoke. In more severe cases dichloromethane can cause increase in carboxyhemoglobin levels in the blood, which can lead to respiratory failure and central nervous system depression.