Children are expected to meet milestones in their development which are given as a broad average, as all children are different. For instance, one child may have a different upbringing to another, which could affect their learning ability. They learn with different areas of development that include physical, emotional, behavioural, communication, intellectual and social development.
At different ages children learn to do new things. These have been separated below into age ranges 0-3 years, 3-7 years, 7-12 years, 12-16 years and 16-19 years
Physical Development Physical development helps babies and children to improve their skills and co-ordination. It also helps with control and movement. Children learn from a young age, how important doing physical activity is and it helps them to make healthy choices as they grow. Children learn by doing things and trying sports and activities help them to gain confidence as well as helping them to socialise with their peers. Physical development can also be given outside of the class through out of school clubs as well as by playing during break times throughout the school day.
0-3 Years Old – New born babies have very little control over their movements, they tend to react to sound, light and visual stimulants. They use basic actions on a regular basis such as pinching to pick up objects and suckling. As babies/children grow they have more control over their movements and gain strength to be able to crawl and walk. They begin to refine their control to enable them to develop skills such as writing, drawing and painting. At this stage the development is rapid and most of the learning is done through playing.
3-7 Years Old – Children of these ages are much more confident and honed their hand/eye coordination skills. Children continue to develop their writing, drawing, colouring and develop new skills such as using scissors. They are also more confident in using balancing skills and have more control when kicking or throwing a ball. They will begin to understand how they may be different to their peers in terms of their own physical development and may compare themselves with each other i.e. Having races during play times.
7-12 Years Old – At this stage children will try a lot of different activities and sports. They will develop hobbies and interests and become better in using different body parts i.e. Sports, Dancing or playing and instruments. Both girls and boys in the later stage may be showing early signs of puberty. Moving between schools will introduce children to new activities and this is also the stage where there is more awareness amongst peers as to the physical attributes each child has.
12-16 Years Old – At this stage of adolescence, young people will have grown a lot stronger, boys will have grown taller and girls will start having periods and developing more. There is increased competition between peers and other young people from different schools. This is also the stage where individuals may settle on one sport or activity they enjoy and will put their efforts to help them develop further. Their bodies will go through significant changes and their development from previous stages will determine how their bodies grow. There may be a greater variance between their heights and strength
16-19 Years Old – Most girls will of reached maturity, however boys will continue to grow until their mid 20’s. Competing in sports competitions at age group level will occur as well as beginning to play with/against adults.
Communication and Intellectual Development it is important for children to gain these areas of development as it will help them with language and the way they learn. A child’s intellectual development comes from opportunities and experiences they have been given in early years. Children respond differently to different forms of learning due
to their strengths and abilities
0-3 Years Old – At this early stage babies will usually cry to communicate when they need something. Adults try to communicate with young babies but will not yet be understood. Babies need to be shown an interest in by being stimulated by means of touch, sight or sound. By 12 months children will try to speak and say words they have heard. By 1-2 years they will be able to use and start to understand around 200 words. They will still make errors in pronunciation and grammar.
3-7 Years Old – children around this age will use a range of words and phrases. They will also start to ask a lot of questions. They will begin remember and be able to talk about past events or experiences, about the future and the things they may be looking forward to. Children will also be learning to read and write and may look for a grown up to encourage them to do so.
7-12 Years Old – They will be able to communicate fluently in their spoken language. children will learn to use information they are given and be able to think and present theirs ideas in many different ways.
12-18 Years Old – as young people approach their GCSEs they are able to have a clear understanding of the subjects they are more keen on and will be more motivated on the ones they choose. They may start to skip school/classes as they may lack confidence in some of their other subjects they are not so keen on. It is important for a teenager has good self esteem and a good group of friends.
16-19 Years Old – At this stage as they reach the end of school they will have an understanding of what they want to do in life and start making choices on whether they will go to university or which career they would like to pursue. They will look to use their strengths and continue to develop them throughout the rest of their lives.
Social, Emotional and Behavioural development Being acknowledged by the important people in a child’s life, helps the child to gain confidence, inner strength and self-belief. Children learn from the examples set to them by others and need encouragement to help them to express feelings, belief, motivation and excitement. Children should be aware of how to behave and treat others. They will begin to develop confidence in being independent.
0-3 Years Old – At a young age children begin to develop a social smile and enjoy playing, they may cry when playing stops. Children become more expressive and start to communicate using their facial expressions and body as well as building a limited vocabulary. As a child grows older they may start to have tantrums of frustration as they want to learn/do things for themselves.
3-7 Years Old – Children start to play with their peers through imaginative play. At this age children will be in full use of their facial expressions and have an understanding of boundaries and why they are necessary. They will be keen to gain knowledge and ask lots of questions. Children of these ages respond well to being given jobs and responsibilities as they feel trusted.
7-12 Years Old – at this stage children have a particular group of friends in which they socialise with. They still need a lot of encouragement and praise to help with confidence and self awareness. They will start to want more independence and opportunities to solve their own issues or problems. They will begin to understand that their peers have feelings and become more emotionally attached to their friends.
12-16 Years Old – Children of these ages self esteem can become vulnerable. They will become aware of body changes. They will want to be more independent from their parents/carers and want to spend more time with their friends. They have more understanding of sensitivity and the effects/expectations they have on their peers and parents. They may still be unsure on how to deal with different issues and will still look for encouragement due to their immaturity.
16-19 Years Old – As they approach adulthood they will still be unsure of the way to behave due to lack of life experience, they may still show signs of emotional immaturity and still ask for advice and guidance.
Describe with examples how different aspects can affect one another.
It is important to understand that although there are different aspects of a child’s development they are all interlinked depending on the activity they are doing. A child may be taking part in a physical activity such as playing Rugby, they are also developing other skills such as their communication, intellectual skills in learning the rules and their social development by taking turns.
To illustrate this further I have listed below the different aspects of a child’s development that are stimulated when undertaking an activity such as learning a dance routine.
Fine motor skills
Moving to a rhythm
Communication and Intellectual Development
Communicating with others to create a routine
Memorising a routine and different moves.
Deciding as part of a group who undertakes what roles
Social, Emotional and Behavioural Development
Taking turns with others
Sharing ideas with others
Practising and working with others