refPc refPerformance evidence
Schools as organisations
The many types of state and independent schools
•Mainstream state schools
•Foundation and trust schools
•Voluntary controlled schools
In England children between the ages 5 – 16 are entitled to a free place in a state school. It is compulsory attendance .If children don’t attend school the parents/guardians can be prosecuted for breaking the law. Its £3000.00 per child, maybe more if the child has special needs. They are funded by local authorities these are called maintained schools. There are four main types of state schools (Community schools : Foundation and trust schools: voluntary – aided schools and voluntary controlled schools) they are all funded by the local authority and follow the national curriculum . The curriculum is organised into five key stages, these are: •Foundation
•Key stage 1: Ages 5-7 (years 1-2 )
•Key stage 2: Ages 7-11 (years 3-6)
•Key stage 3: Ages 11-14 (years 7-9)
•Key stage 4: Ages 14-16 (years 10-11)
Foundation is a key stage on its own this is for children who attend nursery. Key stages 1-2 the subjects included are: English/ Maths/ Science/ Design and technology/ I.C.T/ History/ Geography/ Art and design/ Music and P.E.
Key stage 3 the subjects are the same as 1 and 2 but also include Modern foreign languages and Citizenship. Schools have to provide careers education and guidance/ Sex and relationship education and Religious Education during Year 9. The pupils will choose which subjects to study at Key stage 4; this will lead them to GCSEs qualifications. Key stage 4 pupils will study English/ Maths/Science/ I.C.T / P.E / Citizenship/ Religious Education/ Careers education and at least one subject from each of the four “entitlement areas” which are Arts subject/ Design and technology/ Humanities and Modern foreign languages. At the end of Key stages there are exams to determine a child’s progress. The schools are often inspected by Ofsted Community schools – no difference from mainstream schools only that they are called community because they are going to serve the surrounding area (community) with facilities; Adult education/ Keep fit classes and after school clubs The local authority run and own the schools and land they also employ the staff.
Foundation and trust schools – they are run by the governing body, which employ the staff. The land and buildings are owned by the governing body or a charitable foundation; they consult with the local authority about the admissions policy. Trust schools form a charitable trust with an outside partner such as a business. To become a trust school the decision will be made by the governing body and consulting with parents. Voluntary-aided schools –are religious or faith schools. The same as the Foundation schools they are run by the governing body and can be attended by those of any religion. The land and buildings are owned by a religious organisation or charity. There funded partly by the governing body, partly charity and partly by the local education authority (LEA), who provides support services. In catholic schools parents pay a levy of about £4.00 and the money goes to the Dieses and they distribute the money between the catholic schools. Voluntary controlled schools – same as the voluntary aided schools but the land and buildings are owned by the religious organisation, who also appoints some of the members of the governing body. They are run by the local authority that employ the staff and set the admissions criteria. Specialist schools are schools that apply for specialist status, so they can develop one or two subjects •Rainhill high school – Media arts
•Sutton high – Sports
They receive additional funding from the government.
Academies – receive sponsors from businesses, voluntary groups, partnership of Department of education (DfE) and the local authority they help set up the Academies and they are managed independently. Even though they are not maintained by the local authority they still have close links with them. The sponsor also has the power to appoint governors to the academes governing body. The sponsors fund the land and buildings. Independent schools – they have their own curriculum and admissions policies. They are not ofsteded although the Independent school boards do monitor them. There are 2,300 Independent schools, their Independent in finance and governance. They do not depend on tax payers contributions, instead their funded by tuition fees, gifts and charitable endowments. The usual age for starting school is 5 but many Independent schools offer nursery facilities. The school year which a child is placed depends on age rather than ability, although a child can take exams early if they are capable. Forest schools – A forest school encourage education through outdoor experiences.
In a woodland environment children on a regular basis through play can learn about natural environment, how to handle risks, solve problems and able to work with others They run for about 36 weeks, they help children develop boundaries of behaviour, physical and social skills, confidence, self esteem and become self motivated. Montessori methodology – have a complete different teaching method, there’s no curriculum, no intervention and schoolwork does not get graded. They allow children to learn on their own but their guided by a teacher. Most of the schools offer infant education through to 8th grade. The curriculum aims are to promote development of concentration, perseverance and problem solving, self esteem and worth, Independence of thought and action, development of motor co-ordination and sense of responsibility. They achieve this through the care of the environment, oneself as an individual and care of others in the community.
Within a school there are many roles and responsibilities. Alongside the head teacher there are the school governors and the senior management team who make decisions about Finance / Interviews / Curriculum / Health and Safety issues. The school governors design the policies and set the aims and objectives. The Special educational needs co-ordinator (SENCO) who monitors and helps the pupils with special needs. They liaise between parents and other professionals, they put in place any Individual Educational plans (IEPs), Individual Behavioural Plans (IBPs), or Individual Medical Plans (IMPs). Information is collected and, recorded and kept up to date. The head teacher runs the school on a day to day basis. The Safe guarding Officer has the responsibility of the well being of children and the only person who can refer a child to Social services. Support Staff work alongside teachers in the classroom. They support pupils with activities as directed by the teacher and will give feedback to the teacher after the activities. The teachers are responsible for the class, planning and preparation of the curriculum; they can be part of the Senior management team. Teachers are also available to advise and support other teachers in their subject and monitor teaching.
There may be at times external professionals who may work with a school •Education welfare Officer
•School Improvement Partner
•Speech and Language Therapist
•C.A.H.M.s Mental Health
Educational Welfare Officer role within a school are based within local authorities and visit schools. They work alongside head teachers, they meet with school staff, pupils and parents to identify problems and try to find solutions to them. They help with pupils attendance and support pupils with exclusions and support them returning to school. They arrange alternative education while the pupil has been excluded from school. They help families to receive benefits like school meals, transport and clothing. Sometimes they have to make referrals to other professionals regarding issues with a pupil, but will provide ongoing support to the pupils, parents and teachers. School Improvement officer come into schools to advice and support Head teachers a few days a year. They look at ways to improve the school through school self evaluation and pupil, progress and attainment.
They provide support to new and acting heads, having experience of school leadership or a Senior advisory role in local authority. Specialist Teachers come into schools to offer advice and support for pupils with behaviour, social and communication needs. Such as Autism, Dyslexia, deafness and pupils who may need English as an additional language. Speech and Language Therapist comes into schools to work with pupils, parents and teachers. Schools can refer pupils; even parents can refer their child to a therapist themselves. Some children may require a long term speech and language therapy. Therapists are expected to work with parents and staff, take note of family and educational context to make an assessment, diagnosis and therapy. Help provide training for parents and staff in all aspects of language and communication difficulties.
Support teachers with suggested strategies across the curriculum. Educational Psychologist is allocated to most schools and they support SENCO in providing observations and assessments to pupils who have additional needs. School psychologists are trained in educational and behavioural assessment, Intervention, prevention and consultation. C.A.H.M.s mental health – since September 2005 as part of the new framework for inspection for children’s services. Schools are to show how to contribute to the 5 national outcomes for children that are stipulated by Every Child Matters and the Children Act 2004. These outcomes are, being healthy, staying safe, enjoying and achieving, making a positive contribution and economic wellbeing. The overall aim is to go into schools and encourage a good healthy and positive environment for pupils. Giving them the encouragement to Achieve.
Every school has policies that explain their aims and values and how they will uphold them. An Aim is an anticipated outcome to reach a target or goal, this is set by the head teacher, parents and community, this will be what the school wants to achieve. Value is a belief that influences behaviour and serves as a guideline. Although there are different views people have on them they include self respect and respect others, this ties in with PHSE (Personnel, Social, Health and Economic education) And Citizenship education.
The school I attend mission statement is
A Place To Learn
A Place To Achieve
A Place To Learn
The school show their aims and values by developing links with the community, home and working together for the benefit of the pupils. They have achievements assembly’s for the pupils, were they can show certificates they have from other out of school activities as well as what they have achieved within school. This encourages the pupils to want to learn and achieve targets to be able to celebrate in the assembly. They have fundraising events which involve the community and pupils such as summer fairs, Springo Bingo, coffee mornings and Discos. Some of this is fundraising for local charities like Willowbrook Hospice.
Schools have policies and procedures in place to help support staff in situations that might involve threatening behaviour, abuse or violence. These are to make the school a safe environment. Schools are legally obliged to have these policies and procedures to meet current legislation and to safeguard children. All staff should know where to find them. The Children’s Act 2004 provides the legal basis for social services, schools and other agencies working with children and young adults making them aware how to look after children in the eyes of the law. Schools have policies and procedures relating to staff, pupils welfare and teaching and learning. The staff handbook is to provide you with information about school procedures. Policies relating to staff also include Pay Policy, Performance and Management Policy and Grievance Policy. Policies and Procedures put in place for pupil’s welfare are the SEN code of practice and Safeguarding policy. The SEN aims to enable SEN pupils to reach their full potential and to be included fully in their school. Other policies related to pupil’s welfare are Child Protection Policy, Health and Safety Policy, Drugs awareness Policy, Behaviour Management Policy, Personal, Social and Health education Policy, Anti-bullying Policy and Attendance Policy. Policies and Procedures in place for teaching and learning include the National Curriculum which has separate policies for each subject, Early years Policy, Teaching and Learning Policy, SEN Policy, Planning and Assessment Policy, Homework Policy and Marking Policy.
The role of the Department for Education (DfE) is to be responsible for the education and children’s services. Their responsible for drawing up education Policy for example the National Curriculum and Early years Foundation Stage from which schools operate. Always looking for new ways to develop the quality of services available to children under the five outcomes of Every Child Matters. The local education authority is responsible for providing local services for SEN, the Curriculum, School Management Issues, Behaviour Management, development of school policies and promoting the community. Local authorities need to provide documents which set out their own vision and plans for the development of government based initiatives. Schools are expected to show that they are working with national policies; an example of this is the Every Child Matters framework. It’s an approach to ensure children and young people up to the age of 19, are to have support to help them to achieve and make a positive contribution.
The local education authority offer training if there has been a change in policies the pass the information on to schools and will even come into schools to train all staff if needed. Given that there are organisations such as NSPCC, Barnardos, Sports organisations and Independent after school clubs working with children, they liaise with one another to share knowledge and experience between organisations will only be beneficial to all concerned, especially the children which will develop support for pupils and community cohesion. Other organisations that have an impact on schools are Social services, who at times have to share information or prepare for court hearings and have meetings with teachers. Children’s Services these are linked to the outcomes of Every Child Matters. Youth Services these have more impact on secondary schools, but will be more concerned with training and the National Health Service who have professionals who come into school and work with them these include Speech Therapists, Physiotherapists and occupational therapists.