Answer the following questions in your own words. Answer each question briefly but fully – using bullet points or lists in place of continuous sentences if you prefer. You may refer to your textbook or learning materials if necessary but must not copy from them. Do not work with, or share answers with, other students in this course when completing this assignment task. 1. List the common aspects of effective counselling therapies. 2. Identify five common counselling therapies and briefly explain the principles of each. 3. Identify the key techniques used in each of the five common counselling therapies listed in question 2 and briefly explain their impact on the client. 4. Identify the benefits of each of the five common counselling therapies listed in question 2 in working with clients. 5. Identify the limitations of each of the five common counselling therapies listed in question 2 in working with clients.
Client/extra therapeutic factors
Placebo hope and expectancy
The Therapy Model
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy – focuses on cognitions thoughts, emotions, behaviours and physical responses that may be concurrent with the client’s problems. Gestalt Therapy – is for clients to become receptive of what they are doing, how they engage it and how they can transition themselves. Brief Counselling – are focused to deal with the exhibiting issues with here and now. Counsellor is pro-active with setting goals and helps give encouragement to make changes to thoughts or limiting behaviour patterns. Family Counselling – interprets clients as part of a system. Behaviours of one member in a group will have impacts on each person within that group. Counsellors will consider and explore dynamics of the client’s family, impacts on issues of the client and the family as a whole. Person Centred Counselling – are beliefs that clients have the ability to solve their issues when they have clear understandings, an appropriate environment is best.
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Socratic Dialogue helps clients to get the idea and make connections between thoughts and behaviours. Exposure techniques, the counsellor utilises systematic desensitisation – Clients are taught automatic relaxation techniques to ease fears/anxiety when in a setting that brings about physical limiting reactions. Social skills and assertiveness training, assists clients on how to respond to social environments and perspectives. Role-playing allows the clients to re-enact certain scenarios, and encouraged to discuss, thoughts and feelings to help resolve issues dealing with situations in everyday life.
Person Centred Counselling
Congruence –Genuine with the clients builds rapport, providing safe environment for the client to freely express their feelings. Emphatic understanding – Delivering to the client what’s been said and understanding the issues and how it affects them. Unconditional positive regard – Allows clients to feel valued and safe from discrimination.
Here and now, assisting clients to stay in the present. Engaging with questions, letting them experience the present moment. Experiments are structured to surface what clients are experiencing into the present, identifying any internal conflicts that arise. Encouraging clients to focus thoughts and feelings with here and now. Dream Work – encourages the client to re-enact/portray their dream out unearthing the meaning for them-selves.
Counsellors are able to work with multi-disciplinary teams. Often include a range of expert’s psychologists, social workers and psychiatrists. Therapeutic teams have broader views than an individual counsellor. Family counsellors should be flexible with approaches, understanding family dynamics and roles. Clients are encouraged to recognise behaviours; individual persons can impact the family as a whole. Genogram this emphasizes patterns of behaviours within the family, illustrating family traits, behaviours and feelings that pass from one generation to another.
Miracle Question – how they would feel if they were to wake up one day and all their issues and were to disappear and discuss feelings about this scenario. Exception-finding questions -Asking certain times in the client’s life when issues where not present. Scaling questions – letting the client to openly discuss feelings from 1 – 10. Coping questions – if they had similar experiences prior and how they managed given tasks, involve activities and goal settings, keeping a journal/diary of how they felt, reactions to various situations and issues between sessions.
CBT – is practical dealing with issues, phobias, depression, and anxiety. Also useful with personality disorders.Person Centred Counselling – allows fact that all individuals are people; they are capable and have the ability to be in control of their own lives. Gestalt Therapy- clients are matched with a broad variety of ways to perceive and interpret themselves better and responding to inner conflicts.Family Counselling – counsellors may engage with entire families, rather than having just one point of view. It helps reduces social isolation, leads to stronger family groups and self-esteem as family members once aware of issues they are able to work together to have it resolved. Brief Counselling – With time and financial restraints on clients/organisations this is suitable to have situations dealt with straightaway.
CBT- Has drawn backs concerns that it may not achieve long term changes.Person Centred Therapy – Main criticism it’s considered to having no structured techniques and the client would need further direction, aid and help during the counselling process by the counsellor with necessary developments. Gestalt therapy – Effective counsellors needs to be fully trained, due to the powerful emotions that clients may raise and surface. Family Counselling – Everyone belongs to a family system this is considered more useful for some, theorists argue to only deal and mainly look at the client on individual basis. Brief Counselling – Can be frustrating for the clients wanting to know the impacts and issues that are happening to them and problems they face on a deeper level.