1.1 Outline the nutritional requirements of a healthy diet for children and young people. Energy enables children to concentrate, learn and play at school. Starchy carbohydrates should provide the main source of energy in the diet. Sources of carbohydrates are Breads of all types, rice, pasta, noodles, potatoes, yam, oats, cassava, couscous, breakfast cereals, wheat grains like bulgar wheat, lentils, red kidney beans and black eyed beans. Good practice Whole grain varieties of bread and cereal are best as they are good sources of fibre. Non-milk extrinsic (NME) sugars Diets low in NME sugars will help to prevent tooth decay. Sources are Table sugar, jam, honey, sweetened drinks, cakes, pastries, ice cream, sweets, biscuits, confectionary and chocolate. Good practice Use less sugar in recipes, serve fruit-based or dairy-based desserts instead of cakes and biscuits which often contain lots of added sugar. Restrict access to sugar to be added to hot drinks. When choosing prepared products, check the label and choose those products lower in sugar.
4 Fat Lower fat intake can prevent weight gain. Sources of high fat are Butter, lard, margarine, fat spreads, oils or dressings such as mayonnaise. Chips and other deep fried food, potato waffles, garlic bread, pastries, cakes, biscuits, creamy puddings, meat or meat products such as pastries. Good practice Grill and bake food instead of frying. When making sandwiches, try not using any butter or spread if the filling is moist enough, if using fat spread, choose a reduced fat variety and spread thinly. When choosing prepared products, check the label and choose those products lower in fat. Saturated fat A diet low in saturated fat can prevent high cholesterol and decrease the risk of coronary heart disease, diabetes and some cancers. Sources of saturated fats are Butter, lard, cream, coconut oil or cream, palm oil, mayonnaise, salad cream and some margarines. Meat products such as pie’s, burgers and sausages. Also hard cheese’s such as cheddar. Cakes and biscuit’s. Good practice Choose lower fat dairy products- Skimmed or semi skimmed milk, low fat yoghurt and reduced fat cheese.
Choose lean cuts of red meat and remove the skin from chicken. For cooking use an unsaturated vegetable oil such as rapeseed oil or olive oil. Avoid adding butter or oil to food (e.g. vegetables) after cooking. When choosing prepared products check the label and choose those lower in saturated fat: FSA guidance on labelling states that 5g or more saturated fat per 100g is ‘high’ and 1.5g or less 100g is ‘low’. Protein is important for growth and repair of body tissues and muscles. Pupils are growing fast so protein is particularly important to them. Sources of protein include Meat, fish, milk, cheese, eggs, yoghurt, nuts and seeds, kidney beans, lentils, meat alternatives (e.g. tofu, chickpeas and cereals) These food items can be incorporated into dishes such as chicken and vegetable jambalaya, chickpea and cauliflower curry, salmon sandwiches, cauliflower cheese, nut roast, chicken casserole, omelette with ham and cheese.
Good practice Including plant protein as well as animal protein on your menu will ensure that pupils are eating protein from a variety of sources. Vegetarian pupils should have adequate protein intake if they eat cereals, beans and lentils, soya products, eggs, milk and dairy products. For vegan or lactose intolerant pupils, soya, oat or rice drinks provide an alternative to milk. Be aware of nut allergies. Fibre assists bowel function and prevents problems like constipation. Sources of fibre are Brown rice, oats, wholegrain cereals, muesli, potatoes with skins, wholemeal bread, buglar wheat, lentils, chickpeas, red kidney beans, fruit and vegetables. These food items can be incorporated into dishes, such as vegetable and lentil bake, chilli con carne served with brown rice, jacket potato with beans and fruit salad. Good practice Choose wholegrain, wholemeal or brown varieties where possible. If children reject wholemeal varieties, use combinations of wholemeal and white varieties to encourage consumption.
Leave skins on potatoes and add pulses and vegetables to stews and pies to add fibre. Sodium is a component of salt. Salt is needed to maintain fluid balance in the body and for nerve and muscle function. Most salt consumed is contained within processed food. Low salt can decrease the onset of high blood pressure, which may lead to conditions such as stroke, heart disease and kidney problems. Sources of sodium are Ready-made soups, sauces, gravy, processed food, some breakfast cereals, salty snacks (crisps and salted nuts), bacon, ham, sausages, pizza, cheese and condiments. Good practice Limit the amount of salt added during cooking and instead flavour with herbs and spices. Cook meals from raw ingredients rather than using manufactured products high in salt. When choosing prepared products, check the label and choose those lower in salt.
FSA guidance on labelling states that 1.5g or more salt (0.6g sodium) per 100g is ‘high’ and 0.3g or less of salt (0.1g sodium) per 100g is ‘low’. Vitamin A is important for growth and tissue repair, good eyesight and immune system. Sources of vitamin A are as follows oily fish, eggs, liver, cheese, butter, milk, yellow, red and orange coloured fruits and vegetables. Such as carrots, peppers, apricots, oranges, papaya, mango, butternut squash, sweet potato, tomatoes and dark green leafy vegetables. Good practice Serve a variety of fruit and vegetables. These food items can be incorporated into dishes like salmon fishcakes, baked sweet potato wedges, red pepper and tomato omelette, carrot and coriander soup and fruit salad. Yellow, orange and red coloured fruits and vegetables contain the most vitamin A. Vitamin C is an antioxidant which may help to protect the body from infections and illnesses.
Vitamin C is needed for wound healing and the structure of blood vessels and skin vitamin c enhances iron absorption. Fruits contain vitamin c, especially citrus fruits such as oranges, limes, grapefruit, berries, kiwi fruits. Vegetables (including frozen) , especially broccoli, green and red peppers, sweet potatoes and potatoes. These food items can be incorporated into dishes, like jacket potato with salad, lemon chicken, berry smoothies, fruit salad, mixed vegetable hot pot and casserole. Good practice Raw fruit and vegetables contain the most vitamin c. Vitamin c may be lost during preparation and cooking, so prepare and cook food as close to lunch time as possible. Steam vegetables to minimise vitamin losses or cook them in a minimum volume of water. Folate is essential for blood cells and the nervous system, and prevents anaemia. Sources are liver, yeast and orange juice, green leafy vegetables, such as spinach, green beans, beetroot, chickpeas, black-eye beans, broccoli and peas.
Breakfast cereals are often fortified with folate. These can be made into dishes like pea and ham soup or spinach and potato curry. Good practice Folate may be lost during the cooking process so prepare and cook foods as close to lunch time as possible, steam vegetables to minimise loss of vitamins. Calcium Is essential for strong teeth and bones, and for muscle and nerve function as well as blood clotting. A diet containing enough calcium will decrease the risk of developing osteoporosis or brittle bones later in life. Sources are milk, cheese, yogurt and canned fish with bones (salmon, pilchards and tuna), broccoli, cabbage, dried fruits, tofu, red kidney beans, chick peas and soya beans. White and brown breads are fortified with calcium. Dishes can be made such as cheese, potato and salmon quiche, rice pudding and custard made with milk.
Good practice for people who do not drink milk, choose soya, oat, or rice drinks enriched with calcium. Use lower fat dairy products; they contain as much calcium as their full fat equivalents. Iron is needed for production of red blood cells, which carry oxygen around the body. Iron also plays an important role in maintaining a healthy immune system. Iron is especially important for teenage girls. Iron deficiency in pupils may be linked to slower intellectual development and poor behaviour in the longer term. Sources are red meat, offal (especially liver and kidney), canned fish, eggs, dark green leafy vegetables, peas, wholegrain (e.g. brown rice), nuts, seeds, red kidney beans, black-eye beans, lentils, chickpeas, dried apricots and raisins.
These foods can be incorporated into dishes, for example lamb casserole, houmous, spaghetti bolognaise, Sheppard’s pie, mixed bean wrap and dried fruit compote. Breakfast cereals are often fortified with iron. Good practice Iron from animal sources is more easily absorbed by the body than plant sources, but plant sources are more important because they provide most of the iron in the diet. Consuming food high in vitamin c at the same time as food containing iron enhances iron absorption.
Vegetarian dishes should regularly include a variety of lentils and peas, eggs, dark green and leafy vegetables. Zinc is used by the body for growth and tissue repair, wound healing and the immune system. Sources include red meat, offal (especially liver and kidney), eggs, fish, milk and other dairy products, cereals, red kidney beans, soya products, lentils and chickpeas. These food items can be incorporated into dishes such as cottage pie, roast pork or beef, lentil bake, brown rice and vegetarian bolognaise using soya mince. Good practice vegetarian dishes should regularly include whole grain cereals, kidney beans, eggs and milk,