In summative evaluation information about the efficacy of the whole learning process is provided, this is achieved through the use of quantitative assessments which involve numeric scores or letter grades to assess learners achievements. The efficacy of the materials used in the learning process and the methodologies employed is determined by good performance by the learners.
In summary the course objectives emphasizes that at the end of the instructional period the learners should demonstrate possession of various management skills that can be utilized in a managerial situation, as such therefore the instructional program should be subjected to a summative evaluation to test whether the learners have really achieved that. My summative evaluation of the course instructional process will involve the following steps as put forth by Kirkpatrick; (1) performance (behavior), and; (2) results. The performance part of the evaluation will investigate two aspects of the instructional process i.
e. behavior of the learners as the means of achieving the performance and consequence of such performance. [Gilbert, T. , 1998] This kind of evaluation will lead to the acquisition of tangible data on the efficacy of the whole process of instruction giving, good performance will consequently to the conclusion that the learners have achieved the course objectives. The evaluation will be carried out formally i. e. a test will be used that will comprise of both theoretical and practical components. [Kirkpatrick, Donald, 1964]
The results part of the evaluation will involve the measuring of the instructional process effectiveness relative to the overall learners’ performance against the course objectives. It is here that the overall individual learners’ performance will be compiled and summed up; this will enable a comparison and an analysis of the overall class performance, with the course objectives and highest individual performance being used as the two yardsticks to grade the learners’ performance. The number of those who met and those who did not meet the course requirements as defined by the set course objectives will be determined.
Those who fail to meet set objectives of the course will be required to undergo another criterion-referenced evaluation test as they will be considered not fit to handle a managerial situation. This summative evaluation plan therefore displays all the signs of criterion-referenced evaluation as it uses two comparison tools i. e. course objectives and the highest individual performance to make conclusions as to whether the learning process facilitated a conducive environment for the achievement of the course objectives or not. Individual and class performance are subjects to the course objectives i.
e. on a summative evaluation point of view did the learners demonstrate the possession of management skills and methods for future managerial responsibilities. Further, as part of analysis of the learners’ performance the formal test used to evaluative the learners will be subjected to “item analysis” to determine its validity and reliability. The validity and reliability testing will involve the identification of defects of the test items such as questions wording and scoring procedures, it will also involve the identification of content areas that the learners have poorly performed.
[Brown & Frederick, 1971] This practice will also promote criterion-referenced evaluation as different learners are bound to score better in certain questions than others.
Brown & Frederick G. , (1971); Measurement and Evaluation, Itasca, Illinois: F. E Peacock. Gilbert, T. (1998); A Leisurely Look at Worthy Performance; The 1998 ASTD Training and Performance Yearbook, Woods, J. & Grads, J. (editors), New York McGraw-Hill Kirkpatrick, Donald, (1964), evaluating, Training Programs, San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, Inc. Tovey, Michael (1997), Training in Australia, Sydney: Pretice Hall, Australia.
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