Methodological differences between questionnaire & interviews are seen as having differing & possibility complementary strengths & weaknesses. While questionnaires are usually views as a more objective research tool that can produce generalizable results because of large sample sizes, results can be threatened by many factors including: faulty questionnaire design; sampling and non – responses errors; biased, questionnaire design & wording; respondent unreliability; ignorance, misunderstanding, or bias, errors in coding, processing & statistical analysis; and faulty interpretation of results. Questionnaire research can be seen as over-reliant on instruments & thus, disconnected from everyday life, with measurement processes creating a spurious /artificial sense of accuracy.
Neither are interviews neutral tools; here data are based on personal interactions which lead to negotiated & contextually based results. While interviews provide context where participants can ask for clarification, elaborate in ideas, & explain perspectives in their own words, the interview can use questioning to lead or manipulate, interviewee responses. Due to the interpersonal nature of the interview context, participants may be more likely to respond in ways they deem socially desirable.
Since most qualitative studies name relatively sample size, the results can be difficult to replicate or generalize. Further differences between the two methods can occur through the coding & analysis of the data. Quantitative data are numeric; more objective, statistical process employed generates results & the interpretation of results. Qualitative data, researcher generally utilizes a process of inductive coding, which can be easily influenced by researcher subjectivities. It can also be difficult to judge how well proposed qualitative categorization actually suits the data.
Harris, Lois R. & Brown, Gavin T.L. (2010). Mixing interview & questionnaire methods: Practical problems in aligning data. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 15 (1). Available online: http://pareonline.net/getvn.asp?v=15&n=1.
Nursing Quantitative and Qualitative Research Design Nirmla A. Gingco Grand Canyon University
NUR 504 Health research Analysis & Utilization
April 29, 2015
The Quantitative Article1: A Quantitative Exploration of the Subjective burden experienced by nurses when caring for patients with delirium. This research article was authored by Siobhan Mc Donell and Fiona Timmins and can be found at Grand Canyon University library resources: Journal of Clinical Nursing. Published on 12 February 2012. This is a summary of quantitative descriptive design study that aims to examine the subjective burden nurses experience when caring for patients with delirium and to identifying the individual aspects of delirium that nurses find most difficult to deal with. The researcher objectivity will help find meaningful information on nurses’ view by using self- reporting questionnaire to collect data. By conducting a descriptive investigation it points out a descriptive design used to develop theories, identify problems within practice, justify current practice and make judgments and in this instance to examine characteristics of a particular in and describe their views on their perceived subjective burden.
Delirium is seen to patients with fluctuating cognitive dysfunction, attention deficits and memory impairment and is most common in any healthcare settings. With predisposing risks factors, the stress caused to family, nurses who have minimal training, lack of knowledge and understanding of disorders and spending direct time and contact with these patients experienced a burden of care. This quantitative research is associated with positivism, evidence is gathered using formal instrument to collect data then analyzed.
There three subtypes of delirium as classified: hyperactive, hypoactive and mixed delirium presentation. Nurses must know how to observe and detect changes in patients behavior that may indicate the onset of a delirious episode; lack of knowledge and limited use of screening tools, there appears to be poor levels of detection, failing to notice the symptoms may have a negative outcomes for the patients, including falls. It can also cause elevated level of strain in the nurse owing to mismanage and diagnose. The subject of the burden that nurses face when caring for patients experiencing a delirious episode is a challenge and difficult experience for them.
Statement of Purpose:
The purpose of this study was to examine and measure the subjective burden nurses experience when caring for patients with delirium.
The Strain of Care for Delirium Index (SCDI) was used to collect data in 2007 from a random sample of nurses registered with the national regulatory body for nurses and midwives in the Republic of Ireland. The number represented 1% of all nurses on the active register and 22.62% responded. Sampling method enabled the researchers to identify and provide access to the full population of nurses in Ireland. This method is non- threatening, non intrusive of sample selection that maintained participant anonymity. Data were collected through self -reporting questionnaire from 12 nurses on two separate occasions. It also served to minimize inherent bias and present when using convenience sample, in local hospital settings that is a popular approach.
Due to limited space, please refer to table 3,4,5, and 6 of this article where you can find results analysis distribution of responses to items.
The results indicate that nurses experienced elevated level of stress and strain when managing delirium and hyperactive /hyper alert subtype of delirium was the most challenging and served to increase their burden of caring. The clinical relevance of these findings perceived burden might affect nurse’s perceptions of the patients in their care, thus potentially influencing or hampering accurate diagnosis of delirium.
Journal of Clinical Nursing, 21,2488-2498,doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2702.04130.x A quantitative exploration of the subjective burden experienced by nurses when caring for patients with delirium. Siobhan Mc Donnell and Fiona Timmins
2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
The Qualitative Article 2: Spiritual Needs of Cancer Patients: A Qualitative Study
The article was found in Indian Journal of Palliative Care in Grand Canyon University library resources. This is a summary of qualitative content analysis study that aim to explain spiritual needs of cancer patients in Iran and with the diagnosis of cancer can affect huge spiritual crisis in a person at different aspects of life. People’s spirituality is more demonstrated when in need and in crisis. Cancer is considered one of the most important health problems worldwide. WHO estimates in 2012,14.1 million new cases and 1.7 million deaths due to cancer annually in Europe, and is anticipated that prevalence of cancer will double by 2020.
Cancer can significantly increase patient’s spiritual needs, because self-esteem, spiritual faith, personal relationships are impaired due to lack of confidence. The adoptive mechanisms leading to feeling of loneliness, and ultimately spiritual crisis leads to imbalance of thoughts, body and soul. Nurses are responsible and accountable to provide attention to spiritual care, providing a healing ambience for patients and to provide care beyond physical needs since when facing the diagnosis, changes in status of disease or end- of -life problems, cancer patients may be more at risk of spiritual stress. Failure to meet spiritual needs is associated with reduced quality of care, patients satisfaction and quality of life.
Statement of Purpose:
The purpose of this study is to determine the spiritual needs of Iranian patients with cancer.
The authors posed five research questions using semi- structures interviews and began with an open, general questions such as: “ How has the disease affected your feelings, behaviors or needs? And continued with last “ What makes you happy during illness? Next, follow- up questions were asked according to information disclosed by participants to clarify the subject matter such as “ Can you explained more? “ Could you give an example, so I can understand you better? Methods:
Participants were 18 patients, including 9 men and 9 women with in the age range 22-72 years referred to the Cancer Institute of Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran were selected using purposive sampling method, and their spiritual needs emerged out of conventional content analysis of interviews conducted with them. For rigor and acceptability of data, the following methods were used: a. Prolonged engagement, in which researchers used simultaneous analysis and collection of data thereby providing possibility of feedback. b. Selecting main informants: patients with ability and inclination to cooperate, and ability to maintain effective communications were interviewed. c. Use of time triangulation, which meant use of “ interview in two sessions” to make feedback possible. d. Peer check, in the form of use of complementary views of colleagues and experts, so that two researchers reviewed all interviews and extracted themes.
Patients need some time to be alone for developing a relationship with God and to think about spiritual belief. More than 93% of patients with cancer believed that spirituality helped them to strengthen their hope. Researchers emphasize the importance of the relationships with God as an aspect of spirituality that may provide some hope, optimism and inner strength in adapting to stress. Spiritual health leads to a purposeful and meaningful life.
Hatamipour K, Rassouli M, Yaghmaie F, Zendedel K, Majd HA. Spiritual Needs of Cancer Patients: A qualitative study. Indian Journal of Palliative Care 2015:21:61-7 Website: www.jpalliativecare.com
DOI: 10.4103/0973- 1075.150190
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