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What was once a special occasion food item has now become one of the most popular business ventures in the country? LechonManok and liempo business in the Philippines are sprouting in almost every corner. Some were developed into successful business franchises and others went out of business easily. Lechonmanok or roasted chicken is a chicken dish in several regions of the world, most specifically Spain and its former colonial possessions throughout the world.

The word lechon originated from the Spanish term lechon; that refers to a suckling pig that is roasted. The LechonManok craze swept the nation in the 1980’s. It was practically impossible for the ordinary citizen to leave his home and arrive at any destination without seeing at least two competing lechonmanok kiosks in the streets. Cooked on a spit, lechonmanok is so unlike rotisserie chicken. It has an aroma and taste that it quintessentially Filipino. Ingredients for the lechonmanok:chicken, soy sauce, garlic powder, turmeric, lime juice, cooking oil, ginger, pandan leaves, banana leaves.

Then mix the soy sauce, salt, garlic powder, turmeric and lime juice. Rub the mixture all over the chicken, including the cavity. Stuff the cavity with the garlic, ginger slices and pandan leaves. Lechnonmanok is tasteful delicacies that may people are buying today. Lechonmanok stands can be found in almost every street in Metro Manila. With its delicious taste, one cannot resist the temptation of buying it

It has been three centuries long when Marikina was established in 1630 by the followers of St. Ignatius of Loyola, the Jesuit Orders who blazed the trail in quest of spiritual transformation among the country’s inhabitants. It was then called Barrio Jesus dela Peña in honor of the Infant Child Jesus. It was also during the same year (1630) when the first Catholic mass was celebrated in the town of Barrio Jesus dela Peña. A municipality status was granted to the town in 1787 under the Province of Rizal with Don Benito Mendoza as its first Governadorcillo.

The Philippines had been under Spanish occupation for over 300 years. It is not surprising that a lot of Filipino dishes are derived from Spanish cuisine. Among this is lechonmanok. This simply means ‘suckling pig’ in Spanish. The whole process of lechonmanok involves slowly roasting a whole pig in charcoal until the skin is brown and crispy. Since roasting a whole pig can be tedious, expensive and simply not practical for everyday consumption, chicken (manok) has been a more viable yet just as delicious option.

Marikina city is one of the top progressing cities in Manila. Marikina City today is a multi-awarded metropolitan city, often cited for its vibrant economy, a highly-skilled and literate work force, an involved and enlightened business community, and a responsive local government that puts a premium on governance, sustainable urban development and public service. The city also now boasts of hosting other big companies, multinationals and local, as well as leading exporting firms. There are a lot of businesses found in the city one of those is lechonmanok business.

Lechonmanok franchises in Marikina are spread intensively throughout the city. There are several advantages that a lechonmanok business offers a new entrant. One, he is free to choose his market. Two, it is not difficult to find a good location for a franchise. Since grilled chicken products are considered as a daily consumable, any populated area is a good place for a franchise. Third, the industry enjoys continuous growth.Fourth, lechonmanok is prepared throughout the year for any special occasion, during festivals, and the holidays Conceptual Framework

Many first-time business owners think that by simply placing an ad, customers will automatically flock to purchase their product. Some people learn about your invention and try it, just out of curiosity. But hundreds of other potential customers may never learn of your business. The financial requirement does not stop from paying the franchise fees and get a hold of the initial utensils and equipment to start the business running. You have to maintain a working capital to flourish the business. Be prepared with cash to operate it fully.

Take note that there is a lechonmanok and liempo business just around the corner. You might need ample ammunition to kill the competition. Location is very critical in lechonmanok and liempo business in the Philippines. You might discover that the good ones are already taken. Remember that an additional lechonmanok and liempo stall in the area do not mean additional business. There is a tendency that you may be slicing the pie in terms of business share.

In addition, the business is easily replicated. When you discover a fantastic location, expect that others will follow suit. Management skills are very important when running one of those lechonmanok and liempo stalls. You must know inventory management and other cost control strategies to operate on a profit. Lechonmanok and liempo business in the Philippines is cost sensitive especially that the price of chicken and pork are static. Four P’s of Marketing

Describe Your Product
Try to describe the benefits of your goods from your customer’s perspective. Emphasize its special features. Successful business owners know or at least have an idea of what their customers what or expect from them. This type of anticipation can be helpful in building customer satisfaction and loyalty. Develop a Marketing Budget

Operating an effective marketing plan requires money, so allocate funds from operating budget to cover advertising & promotional marketing. Develop a marketing budget based on the cost for the media you will use, and the cost for collecting research data and monitoring shifts in the marketplace. Describe Location (Place)

Again, try to describe the location of the business from your customer’s perspective. Describe its assets, the convenience, accessible transportation, the safety aspects, etc. Location should be built around your customers; it should be accessible and should provide a sense of security. Develop Pricing Strategy

Although your pricing strategy may be based on others, you should study this plan and the strategies used by competitors. That way you will acquire a thorough understanding of how to price your product, and you can determine if your prices are in line with competitors and what adjustments you can make to bring them in line. The key to success is to have a well-planned strategy, to establish your policies and to constantly monitor prices and operating costs to ensure profits. Keep abreast of changes in the marketplace because these changes can affect your bottom line.

Reseach paradigm

This study will investigate the success factors of LechonManok Businesses in Marikina City. Specifically it will seek answer to the following question. 1. What are the strengths of the lechonmanok business?

2. What are the weaknesses of your lechonmanok business?
3. What are the possible opportunities you may encounter having a lechonmanok business? 4. What are the possible threats that lechonmanok business may encounter? 5. What are the marketing strategies that you think effective?

6. Is there a significant difference among opinion of the respondents regarding the strengths and weaknesses of the lechonmanok business when grouped according to gender? 7. Is there a significant difference among opinion of the respondents regarding the strengths and weaknesses of the lechonmanok business when grouped according to age? HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDY

There is no significant difference among opinion of the respondents regarding the strengths and weaknesses of the lechon manok business when grouped according to gender. There is no significant difference among opinion of the respondents regarding the strengths and weaknesses of the lechon manok business when grouped according to age. ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS

There is significant difference among opinion of the respondents regarding the strengths and weaknesses of the lechon manok business when grouped according to gender. There is significant difference among opinion of the respondents regarding the strengths and weaknesses of the lechon manok business when grouped according to age.

Significance of the Study
The importance of this study is to execute a research about the LechongManok business in Marikina City and will help the people interested in this. This includes the following:

For the Businessmen, to have an ideas and knowledge in franchising like it’s not easy to raise a Franchise business if you do not have enough money/capital, ideas, information to know about the product that will grow in the market and that will satisfy the needs and wants of the consumer. In this information it will help the businessmen to build a business Franchise.

For those who want to raise a business, be prepared in managing a business and to become successful in a business chosen. For the next researcher, to have an interest about Franchising and to improve the next research. In this research, it can attract the researcher to study this kind of business.  For the Readers, to give information about franchising. To know what are the dos and don’ts, advantages and disadvantages in franchising business. In this research, one can get ideas if ever they want to build a business.

For those who are taking business related courses, they can get a lot of ideas and information about raising a business. They can also have the idea in managing a business. These researches also give them information that will help in their study about business that they can use in their future career.

Scope and Limitation of the Study
This research will focus on the following Lechon Manok Businesses namely: Andok’s; Baliwag; Chooks to go; D’ Champ; Hungry Juan; Save more Lechon Manok; Sr. Pedro.

The respondents are in our research are 69 customers and 16 employees of the said establishments. DEFINITION OF TERMS
Abreast Side by side
Chicken coop is a building where female chickens are kept. Inside hen houses are often nest boxes for egg-laying and perches on which the birds can sleep, although coops for meat birds seldom have either of these features. Chicken liver Contain a large amount of cholesterol, but it also supplies healthy doses of many essential vitamins and minerals. Chicken stock Cooked meat, such as that remaining on poultry carcasses, is often used along with the bones of the bird or joint.

Charcoal grill A device that grill food at high heat or to cook food over a charcoal or wood fire Dressed chicken Dressed” (referring to fowl) means simply “ready for the oven”. Cleaned, plucked, innards removed, washed, etc. Evaporated milk the end result is a dense, high calorie milk that is usually fortified with vitamins A & D, just like fresh milk.

Gravy The sauce in Lechon Manok and the juice given off by the meat in cooking Kiosks Free standing, semi-permanent display or retail outlet, within a large retail establishment Quintessentially Of, relating to, or having the nature of a quintessence; being the most typical Roasted chicken That has been cooked in an oven or on a spit or barbecue, or possibly pot-roasted in the pan on a stove-top.

Rotisserie A cooking appliance with a rotating spit for roasting and barbecuing meat. Split-roasted chicken They are often used to cook whole chickens or roasts of various meats including beef and pork Tedious Tiresome by reason of length, slowness, or dullness; boring.

Turmeric Grows wild ginger plant in the forests of South and Southeast Asia. It is one of the key ingredients in many Asian dishes.


Foreign Literature
The perfect roast chicken
What are your tips for a perfect roast chicken? Is it all about the temperature, the fat – or do you have a secret weapon up your sleeve?

When, nearly two centuries after his death, a man’s name is still common currency among the worlds finest cheese mongers, it’s safe to assume that, in his day, the fellow had a fair old appetite. And thus, when Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin, 19th-century French gourmet – and the inspiration for the unfeasibly rich triple-cream cheese of the same name – describes the humble chicken as a culinary blank canvas, I’m inclined to listen. Viewed with the appropriate respect, even the simplest of chicken dishes, the roast, is revealed as a veritable smorgasbord of gastronomic potential.

Roast chicken might sound like an easy option, but actually it’s a surprisingly difficult thing to get right, which is why it’s often used by chefs as a test for potential new recruits. The issue is not so much one of flavour – you get what you pay for in that department – but texture.

I need to crack the secret of juicy meat and crisp skin before I can really make the most of that delicious blank canvas of Brillat-Savarin’s. A quick trawl of ‘perfect roast chicken’ recipes online suggests I’ve been a little lackadaisical in the past. Far from a five-minute season and stuff job, I’m expected to devote two days to brining and drying the bird before it’s allowed anywhere near the oven. Not a chance: for me a roast is the crowning glory of a lazy Sunday, and I’m not willing to spent the whole weekend slaving over it, however spectacular the results.

I was delighted, therefore, to find a recipe which demanded even less of me than I did of myself. Thomas Keller, California’s superstar chef, has a suitably laid-back take on the perfect roast. Pre-heat the oven to 230˚C, he says. Rinse the chicken, then dry it very well with paper towels, inside and out: ‘the less it steams, the drier the heat – the better.’ Season liberally inside and out, then chuck it in the oven and “leave it alone – I don’t baste it, I don’t add butter; you can if you wish, but I feel this creates steam, which I don’t want.”

Keller’s first law of chicken skin seems to be that dry = crisp, so I take the liberty of unwrapping the bird and leaving it to stand for eight hours before cooking, in order to banish any lingering moisture. I also ignore his rinsing instructions, on the basis that the Food Standards Agency advises against washing poultry, which seems a happy excuse to cut my prep time even further. In consequence, it’s barely three minutes from fridge to oven – my kind of cooking.

The results are certainly promising: chicken number one has turned a burnished bronze that puts me in mind of Peter Andre. The poultry panel is visibly impressed, and launch at the blistered bird with gusto, tearing at its tanned skin like hungry foxes. They’re unanimously enthusiastic. “That is good,” Max mumbles, going in for a second helping. It’s with some difficulty that I persuade him, and the others, to try some of the meat beneath instead. “Bit chewy,” is the general verdict.

To be honest, the meat beneath that dreamy exterior isn’t as horrifically dry as I’d feared, but we all agree that it lacks moisture. Next! The second recipe, from cookery writer Annie Bell, takes a completely different tack, slipping in a crafty 10 minute poach before the bird goes into the oven. It’s a clever idea – poached chicken is famously succulent – but a risky one too, given the importance of dry skin for a crispy finish. In direct contravention of Keller’s prohibition on steam, as well as drizzling oil on to the chicken once it’s been patted dry, I’m also instructed to tip a couple of millimetres of water into the roasting tin before putting into the oven at 220˚C for 40 minutes.

The ensuing steam sets off the fire alarm, but the cooked bird is browner than I’d anticipated, presumably because of the high cooking temperature. Although the rather elastic skin attracts considerably less excitement, it still tastes pretty good, and the meat beneath is wonderfully juicy. Annie’s poaching trick is definitely a crowd-pleaser, with one of the panel claiming it’s the best roast chicken she’s ever had. Next up is an entry from across the Channel, inevitably involving le goose fat.

I have to heat two tablespoons of it in a roasting tin, and then brown chicken number three on all sides, which takes some time, as it keeps slipping from my tongs – presumably the great Pierre Koffman has minions to do such things for him. It then goes into the oven at 180˚C for 50 minutes, balanced precariously on one side, then the other, finishing with 10 minutes on its back. This mademoiselle is one high-maintenance bird: Koffman has me in and out of the oven turning and basting like an over attentive lover.

For all my solicitous attentions, however, the end result is sadly pale – no improvements on the original pan colour – and the skin is soft and greasy. The interior may be deliciously moist and tender, but, after their initial disappointment, the panel isn’t sold: Koffman may do a mean stuffed trotter, they mutter, but he should leave the fine art of roasting to the pros. It’s time to play my trump card, in the form of Simon Hopkinson.

Given that Roast Chicken and Other Stories were once voted the most useful cookbook of all time, I reckon that if anyone’s an expert on the subject, it’s him. Under Simon’s tutelage the oven goes back up to 230˚C and my penultimate victim is treated to a butter massage with a chaser of lemon juice to help her crisp up. Then it’s into the oven for an initial 10-minute blast of heat, followed by 40 minutes at a slightly more moderate 190˚C, with an occasional baste to keep things nice and moist. The end result looks pretty good – lightly golden – and smells incredible. The skin, although undeniably less crisp than Keller’s

benchmark, is helped in the flavour stakes by the butter and lemon juice, and disappears almost as quickly. The meat, despite my best efforts with the turkey baster, is undeniably below-par: even after a 20 minute rest, it’s almost as fibrous as the dry-roasted bird. I’m not sure where it went wrong, but it did. Sorry Simon. Meanwhile, in the top oven, I’ve been nurturing my final chick, in the worryingly cool nest demanded by Matthew Fort.

His slow-cooked recipe involves a very low oven, lemon juice, a little water and four and a half hours of patient turning while fending off unkind remarks about its unprepossessing appearance. I think my oven must go rather lower than Matthew’s, because nearly six hours later, I’m still struggling to hit the 62˚C necessary to zonk any lurking bacteria.

Desperate to go to bed, I cheat and turn it up a little, from 50 to 80˚C to encourage things along. The meat thermometer is definitely now hovering slightly east of the magic 60, so I crank the oven up to maximum, and butter and salt the pallid bird. It doesn’t quite look raw, as Fort suggests, but it’s certainly not screaming “eat me!” either.

A 10-minute fast bake works wonders however: moderately crispy skin (still not quite Keller-esque, sadly), and tender, firm flesh … it’s not perfect, but it’s not bad at all. Then I notice distinctly pink juices pooling underneath the bird. Pushing seven hours is just too long for me I’m afraid, Matthew. So, Keller’s dry and hot treatment is the key to crisp skin, and pre-poaching gives deliciously juicy meat – but the two methods are sadly incompatible.

Given that there’s more flesh than skin on your average chicken, I’ll be adopting the poaching idea in future, but modifying Annie’s recipe to include a final blast of heat, as advocated by Matthew Fort, to help add some crunch.

The Secret Second Life of Kenny Rogers Roasters … in Asia

Kenny Rogers Roasters is one of several obsolete, tarnished or dying U.S. brands enjoying a second and much more robust life in Asia. The business, launched by Rogers and former KFC owner John Y. Brown, Jr. in Florida in 1991, went bankrupt in 1998. It was bought by the fast-food company Nathan’s Famous, which in 2008 sold the entire chain to its Asian franchiser, Malaysia-based Berjaya Roasters Sdn Bhd. That same year, in an interview with the Raleigh News Observer, Kenny Rogers lamented, “You know, we had
those little corn muffins that actually had corn in them. I miss that.” By then — and still now — a lone restaurant in Ontario, Calif., was all that remained of hundreds of American outposts.

But those who imagined they might never again partake of its crisp drumsticks and innumerable sides — Kenny included — need only take a trip across the Pacific. There are now close to 140 Kenny Rogers Roasters locations Asia-wide — and counting. The Gambler’s botched foray into food has been described as “one of the fastest growing restaurant chains along the Pacific Rim.” Three years ago, Berjaya bought Kenny Rogers Roasters for $4 million; total revenue for the last fiscal year was over $100 million.

The chain, whose presence is strongest in Malaysia and the Philippines, will move into southern China next, where it intends to expand at the speed that the Beijing airport’s newest terminal spits out baggage. The first restaurant to the area will open in early September and one hundred more are scheduled to follow over the next five years.

The family-style chicken eatery is not alone in finding another chance at success and popularity across the pond. The Spinelli Coffee Company brand, which originated in San Francisco and whose U.S. stores have all been converted into Tully’s coffee shops, is alive and kicking in Singapore, China and Indonesia. The logo on its signposts still bears the name of its hometown despite the fact that it no longer exists as a brand there. Swensen’s, the California-born mom-and-pop ice cream chain, has twice as many stations in Singapore and one and a half times as many in China, as it has left in the States.

Even casual clothing retailer Esprit, founded in America, at one time shuttered its U.S. operations and began expanding in the East under the direction of a new Asian owner. In other words, no American should count the favorite brand of their youth dead until they’ve scoured the shopping malls of Shanghai.

There are plenty of reasons for which enterprises that flounder at home sail smoothly overseas. By hanging on to their original names and core offerings, U.S.-born companies are afforded a cachet and credibility associated with Western brands in Asia, says project manager Elisabeth de Gramont of Shanghai market research firm Jigsaw. At the same time, though, “few people here know the context behind these brands, so they can shed their baggage,” she says. “They can more or less start from scratch.”


Local Literature
Entrepreneur reinvents ‘street-side Lechon Manok

Frederick L. Cortes, however, thought of “Tiktilaok” as a brand (grilled chicken food chain) that’s more than just a “chicken” when he founded it in 2002. Cortes’ passion for food made him decide to reinvent the street-side Lechon Manok into something better and world class. “We started in 2002 just following what other Lechon Manok vendors did. Followed the flavor and all but that flopped,” said Cortes. Realizing that doing the same things those other vendors did will not work, Cortes started reinventing his brand by doing exactly the opposite. “While others sell in the streets, I went to the mall.

Others cook in grills we use an oven. Others sell in whole while we offer half and one-fourth sizes. And we went on to tap the flavored market,” said Cortes. Their first mall outlet opened in Robinsons Mall in 2003 starting as a cart-type operation until customers started lining up. Only a few years since it was created, Cortes’ sister-in-law Sally Y. Bun-an saw the potential of the brand and decided to invest on it through franchising. “She gave us her trust even when we were still starting up.

She helped us a lot in expansions. Now she is handling store operations while my wife Stephanie handles human resource management, marketing. And I sit as president of the company,” said Cortes. Cortes said he believed in quality and value for money, which was the principle behind his success. They offer four flavors for their Lechon Manok which includes honey roasted, garlic, hot and spicy and special which they sell at P210 for the whole, P110 for half and P65 for the one-fourth cut. Because Cortes is a health buff, he said that they don’t add msg or monosodium glutamate into their products.

Despite their higher prices, Cortes said that they still get a lot of customers even including foreign nationals who appreciate the quality of their products and the standard services that they offer. Cortes said he would add four more outlets to his existing 24 Tiktilaok outlets. At present, they are only offering franchise to family members but with their goal to reach 100 outlets by 2015 and go international by 2020, they are now setting up everything to offer franchising also to non-family members.

“We will carefully choose our franchisees. We even tapped a company to do some psychological tests to our applicants so that we can be assured that they share the same vision for our brand. We are looking at 2013 to start offering franchises to non-relative,” said Cortes. Aside from outlet expansions, they will also be adding new products like two more new flavors – curry and barbeque. “We will continue to bank on these qualities to grow and achieve our goals to become a global brand,” said Cortes.

Father of Litson Manok’ shares success story
MANILA, Philippines – The man who is now dubbed as the “Father of Litson Manok” had his share of disappointments when he first started out. But if Leonardo “Sandy” Javier Jr., the owner and CEO of Andok’s Corporation, allowed disappointments to overcome his passion, there wouldn’t be 300 Andok’s stores across the country today. Javier was at the forefront when the “litson Manok” (roasted chicken) craze in the Philippines began more than 20 years ago.

Back then, Javier said he did not have the capital to start a business and he was forced to borrow 12 chickens from his mother’s friend to sell. As luck would have it, Javier only sold two chickens.

However, the aspiring entrepreneur did not stop there.
Unlike other entrepreneurs who had the capital to put up their own business, Javier struggled financially to jumpstart his litson Manok stall. But this struggle, Javier shared, is what inspired him to strive harder. Find your passion

Javier said he experimented with the ingredients to capture what we know today as the trademark Andok’s taste. From the 12 chickens he started with, Javier’s small stall along West Avenue in Quezon City boosted its daily inventory to 80 chickens. “You will start evolving. Magkakaroon ka ng passion. Hindi ka pwedeng magsayang ng oras at kapag ikaw ay nagkamali, tayo ay tao lang nagkakamali, pero you just have to learn from your mistakes and keep going,” he said.

Determined and passionate, Javier continued to grow Andok’s, with its menu expanding to include pork chop, sinigang, fried chicken, Bicol express and desserts. http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/lifestyle/06/28/12/father-litson-manok-shares-success-story Foreign studies

Anti-Cancer Recipes: Beware the Roasted Chicken
Posted on July 20, 2012
Yikes. I’m sorry to have to tell you this, but you might want to reconsider Grandma’s precious recipe. Roasted chicken, it turns out, is more pro- than anti-cancerous. Here are two reasons why: 1/ When meats are cooked at high temperatures, the combination of protein, sugars and the creatine found in muscle produce carcinogenic compounds called HCAs (short for heterocyclic amines—not to be confused with the PAHs that form when fats drip on the flames, which then contaminate your food.) The reaction seems to start at around 300 degrees F; the higher the temp, the greater the contaminants.

The longer the cooking time, ditto. And some animals seem more prone than others: Chicken has 100 times more HCAs than salmon, according to one study. Another study found that rotisserie chicken topped hot dogs, pepperoni, bacon and deli meats in HCAs. And the skin of that rotisserie chicken–another yikes. It had lots more HCAs than all the meats. For certain, HCAs cause cancer in lab animals. And “diets high in HCAs from meat increase people’s risk of stomach, breast and colon cancers, according to the National Cancer Institute.” But to be perfectly honest, the evidence linking HCAs and cancer in humans is mixed, with some studies showing a connection and others not.

Plus, nature does offer some protection: Marinate the chicken in rosemary extract. Add garlic, fresh herbs, spices. All of these contain anti-oxidants that will help protect against HCA formation in the first place. 2/ But that doesn’t arrest the second problem with the beloved roasted chicken: the layer of fat just underneath the skin. Yes, the place where you stuff those cloves of garlic, the body part that renders the bird all juicy and tasty—It’s bad for you. It’s filled with a type of polyunsaturated omega 6 fat that’s highly inflammatory–arachidonic acid. And the science here is substantial.

To quote a 2012 review:“Several recent epidemiologic studies have found a positive association between
dietary omega-6 PUFAs and breast cancer risk.” Compare the fowl fat to that found in wild salmon–omega 3 fatty acids predominantly, anti-inflammatory and a healthier option. Sure, Grandma was often right with her intuition, but “nutrigenomics”—the study of how nutrition alters the expression of genes—was not in her vocabulary. Nor was “anti-cancer.” Ditch the roasted chicken, friends; bake or poach skinless breasts instead. We’re fortunate enough to live at a time when science screams for lifestyle choices.

http://eatandbeatcancer.wordpress.com/2012/07/20/anti-cancer-recipes-beware-the-roasted-chicken/ Roast chicken to warm the soul

The No. 1 trick to roasting chicken: Heat. For perfectly golden skin, turn on the convection setting on the oven, if you have one, or fully heat the oven to 400 degrees. For moistness, let the chicken swim first in a briny solution of water, sugar and salt for a few hours before roasting. Then, for a wonderful aroma and subtle flavor, tuck some paper-thin slices of fresh lemon between the skin and flesh and add a handful of cilantro to the cavity.

Since the chicken takes a long time in the oven, I figure I have time to roast vegetables too. I like to add a mixture directly to the roasting pan with the bird. This way the veggies benefit from the luscious pan juices; just be sure to stir them several times while they cook. Fresh leeks and aromatic fresh fennel best my standard potato and carrot melange. The sweet leeks and crunchy fennel will caramelize and intensify in flavor with the long roasting time.

To accompany the rich roasted chicken and vegetables, I offer plain broccoli florets, gently blanched or steamed to bright green. Pass sliced whole-grain baguette to mop up every bit of the lemony chicken flavor. As long as the oven is going, bake a batch of chocolate cherry peanut butter oatmeal cookies. These have it all going on: oats, nuts, dried fruit and chocolate. Lemony roast chicken with caramelized fennel

Prep: 30 minutes
Brine: Several hours
Cook: 1 1/2 hours
Servings: 6
¼ cup each: salt, sugar
1 whole roasting chicken, about 5 pounds, giblets and neck removed ¼ cup extra-virgin olive oil
2 large leeks with most of the green, split lengthwise, well rinsed, cut into 1/2-inch pieces 2 large or 3 small fennel bulbs, fronds reserved, bulbs chopped into 1/2-inch pieces 2 small thin-skinned lemons, very thinly sliced, seeded

1 handful fresh cilantro
1 teaspoon each: salt, dried oregano
½ teaspoon freshly ground pepper
1. Dissolve 1/4 cup each salt and sugar in 2 quarts of warm water in a large bowl or pot. Add the chicken and additional cool water if necessary to completely submerge the chicken. Refrigerate covered at least 2 hours or up to overnight. Drain; rinse chicken; pat dry. 2. Heat oven to 375 degrees. Pour 3 tablespoons oil into a large roasting pan. Add leeks and fennel; mix well to coat with the oil. 3. Use your hands to gently loosen the skin away from the flesh of the chicken. Slip the lemon slices under the skin on the back and front of the chicken. Tuck the cilantro into the chicken cavity.

Sprinkle the salt, oregano and pepper on all sides of the chicken. Drizzle with remaining 1 tablespoon oil. Place the chicken on top of the vegetables in the pan. 4. Roast the chicken, stirring the vegetables around in the pan juices every 20 minutes or so, until the chicken is golden and the juices run clear when the thigh is pierced, 1 1/4 to 1 1/2 hours.

An instant-read thermometer inserted in the thickest part of the thigh should register about 165 degrees. 5. Gently transfer the chicken to a cutting board; tent with foil. Let rest, 10 minutes. Meanwhile, skim and discard most of the fat from pan juices. Transfer pan juices and vegetables to a serving bowl; season with salt, if needed.

6. Carve the chicken into serving portions. Serve each with a generous spoonful of the vegetables.

http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2013-02-06/features/sc-food-0201-dinner-chicken-20130206_1_chicken-cavity-roast-vegetables-chicken-and-vegetables Local
A Study on the Rate of Microbial Growth in Lechon Manok
The aims of this project are to determine the rate of microbial growth in Lechon Manok and to know up to what time, after cooking, it will still be considered edible. The result of this project will prevent the event of food poisoning caused by eating spoiled. Lechon Manok. The number of microorganisms per gram of the chicken meat was recorded every hour, for a span of 12 to 14 hours.

The microbial growth rate was determined by plotting the results on the graph, and by using linear regression. The results show that the Lechon Manok is still edible up to 7 to 9 hours of exposure after cooking at a temperature of 30 to 40 degrees Celsius. Further study on the effects of temperature and air pollution on the microbial growth rate in Lechon Manok is suggested.


I. Heating Process

Five sets of experiment were conducted. All the five Lechon Manok used in the experiments were bought at the Andok’s Lechon House in Kamias, Quezon City Each Lechon Manok used was cooked for one hour at the Andok’s House. Further heating at a temperature of 30 to 40 degrees Celsius was done in the school using an alternative grill made of metal. II. Transfer of Microorganisms

A piece of meat was taken from the lechon manok and was placed inside a pre-weighed plastic container. The plastic container with the chicken meat was then weighed. The mass of the chicken meat was determined by subtracting the mass of the plastic from the overall weight. The meat was then taken out and put inside a test tube containing 10 mol of nutrient broth. The test tube was then left for 30 minutes to allow the transfer of microorganisms from the meat to the nutrient broth.

After 30 minutes, a small amount of nutrient broth containing the microorganisms was transferred into an agar plate using a 1 mol pipette. A different pipette was used for every replicate, and these pipettes was used for every replicate, and these pipettes were autoclaved. For the first six replicates, 0.2 in of nutrient broth was directly transferred into the agar plate. For the last six replicates, 1 mol of nutrient broth was transferred into another test tube containing 10 mol of nutrient broth. Then from this test tube, 0.2 mol of the medium was transferred into the agar plate. The dilution factor, or the multiplier, was then determined for each replicate.

After the transfer of the microorganisms into the agar plates, the agar plates were then stored for 24 hours, allowing the growth of the microbial colonies. After 24 hours, the number of colonies was then counted, and multiplied by the dilution factor. The resulting value was then divided by the mass of the meat used. The final value is the CFU’s per gram of meat at that time of inoculation. This process was repeated and applied for each of the replicates at a one hour interval. All the processes were done aseptically to ensure the accuracy of the results. http://edu-sciece.blogspot.com/2012/08/a-study-on-rate-of-microbial-growth-in.html


This chapter includes a discussion of the important topics on research techniques and methods for the study, specifically the general methods employed the respective respondents of the study, the different sources of data and the statistical techniques employed in the study.

This study will use the descriptive method. It describes the data that will be gathered through the survey question and unstructured interview of the respondents. The design will help in giving sample implication for further research that relates to Lechon Manok Business preferences that will emphasize key points that will clarify the content measures of the success in operating such business.

The researchers opted to use this design considering the desire of the researchers to obtain first-hand information data from the respondents and also this method will be supplemented with data coming from magazines, journals, pamphlets and other research materials as well as other available data source to formulate simple and direct
conclusion and recommendations for the research study. LOCATION OF THE STUDY

The study will be conducted at Marikina City. There are 7 Lechon Manok businesses which will be the subject of the study. Respondent of the study
Name of Establishment
No. of Employees
No. of customers
Andok’s Lechon Manok
Baliwag Lechon Manok atbp.
Chooks to go
D’ Champ Lechon Manok atbp.
Hungry Juan
Save more Lechon Manok
Sr. Pedro

The researchers will compute the sample size using the “Solving formula”:
n= N
1+ Ne2
N is the population size
n is the sample size
is the degree of marginal error

n= ___N____
1+ Ne2
= ___18 ____
1+18(.10) ^2

n = 15.25

n= ____N_____
1+ Ne2
= __232 ____
1+232(.10) ^2
n= 69.88

The study will use survey questionnaires to gather pertinent data. Moreover, the researcher will also use studies related to the performance of a Lechon Manok businesses and will compare it to existing data in order to provide conclusions and competent recommendations. A self-administered structured questionnaires will be employed by the researchers so as to come up to with an analysis and evaluation of customers perception. The questionnaires will be distributed to the subject respondents.

The research instruments were made for the managers/employees which comprises the strengths and weaknesses, oppurtunities, and threats of their business in which they have to rank using ordinal numnbers. Factors on how effective their marketing strategies were also included. On the other hand, questionnaire for the customers include their profile specifically their age and gender. Customer will choose their answers from the given choices of the questions provided. They wll also rank their perceptions on why or why not they patronize food franchise business. Ranking of answers will also use ordinal numbers.

A letter from the researchers, endorsed by the Philippine School of Business Administration, Quezon City, will be given to the management/owner of the store that requests to conduct the study in the homeowner’s area. The researchers will personally distribute and retrieve the questionnaires to the respondents as conducted by the researcher

The data that will be gathered from the respondents through questionnaires will be tabulated, analyzed and interpreted. The researchers will make use of the percentage and frequency distribution as statistical tools for data analysis. Formula that will be used for the computation of the simple percentage:

P = Percentage
f = Frequency
N = Number of responses falling under particular category
100 = constant



It is the actual number of respondents to a specific question or item in the questionnaire.

It is employed to determine the order of decreasing the order or increasing the magnitude of the variables presented. This study, the largest frequency shall be ranked 1 and the next largest frequencies shall be ranked 2 and so on and so forth. Additional Formula used:

Spearman’s Formula
N (n2-1)
Where: d2- the sum of the squared differences between
n- Number of cases
Rs- Spearman rank difference correlation

Chi square Formula
X2= (O-E)2

Where: x2 – Chi square
O- Observed respondents
E- Expected respondent

A. Book
Chicken ”Collier’s Encyclopedia” 1971ed, vol.6 p.219
Crisostomo, Ricardo M., Pauda, Alicia L.”Parts of the chicken”. General Science

B. News Paper
Ho, Abigail. “Avoiding Failure in Franchising.”
Philippine Daily Inquirer. Philippine Daily Inquirer
Publishing Company: Manila, 17 July 2009.

Salazar, Marlet. “Franchising for First Time Entrepreneur.” Philippine Daily Inquirer. Philippine Daily Inquirer
Publishing Company: Manila, 25 June 2010.

C. Electronic Reference
“Lechon Manok” 5 February 2005
“Lechon Manok” 1 June 2005

Appendix 1

April 29, 2013

Dear Sir/Madam

We, the students of Fundamentals of Research of Philippine School of Business Administration – Quezon City, are conducting a study regarding the success factors of Lechon Manok businesses in Marikina City.

In this regard, please allow us to visit your establishment and interview your employees and customers.

Rest assured that all information to be gathered will be dealt with confidentiality and will be used for classroom purposes only.

Thank you and God bless.

Very respectfully yours,

Acosta, Robert Benedict

Caina, Jan Rian T.

Lachica, Janelle L.

Li, Risa Samantha C.

Villanueva, Mark Jason B.


Noted by:

Dr. Emma R. Guno

Appendix 2

Philippine School of Business Administration
1029- Aurora Blvd, Cubao, Q.C

20 and below
51 and above
Direction: Rank the following given Businesses. (5 is the highest, 1 is the lowest) Legend:
5 -Highly Important
4 – Moderate Important
3 – Important
2 – Least Important
1 -Not Important

1. What could be your strengths to your competitors?

Quality service

Accessible location

Affordable price

Sanitized and clean store

Convenient preparation

2. What could be your weaknesses to your competitors?

Poor quality service

Inaccessible location

Unaffordable price

Untidy and poorly sanitize store

Inconvenient preparation

3. What could be your opportunity?

Expand to a bigger store

Modernization of technology

Branching out

Large target market

Increasing number of population

4. What could be your threats?

Health hazard

Economic crisis

Consumers behavior

Stiff competition

Rapid change of customer interest

5. What are your marketing strategies that you think is effective?

Referrals from regular customers

Online promotion and advertisements

Freebies and giveaways


Open 24/7

Appendix 3

Philippine School of Business Administration
1029- Aurora Blvd, Cubao, Q.C

20 and below
51 and above
Direction: Rank the following given Businesses. (5 is the highest, 1 is the lowest) Legend:
5 –Highly Important
4 — Moderate Important
3 – Important
2– Least Important
1–Not Important
1. How often do you go to this store?
Twice a week

2. How many pieces do you buy?
Half chicken
More than 4

3. Why do you patronize their product?
Quality service

Accessible location

Affordable price

Sanitized and clean store

Convenient preparation

4. Why do you not patronize their product?
Poor quality service

Inaccessible location

Unaffordable price

Untidy and poorly sanitize store

Inconvenient preparation

Appendix 4

Essay Topics:

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