Victor C. Strasburger, MD, The Council on Communications and Media (2010) Children, Adolescents, Substance Abuse, and the Media pg. 791 -799 In the journal the author causes of adolescent substance use are multifactorial, but the media can play a key role. Tobacco and alcohol represent the 2 most significant drug threats to adolescents. More than $25 billion per year is spent on advertising for tobacco, alcohol, and prescription drugs, and such advertising has been shown to be effective. Digital media are increasingly being used to advertise drugs.
In addition, exposure to PG-13– and R-rated movies at an early age may be a major factor in the onset of adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends a ban on all tobacco advertising in all media, limitations on alcohol advertising, avoiding exposure of young children to substance-related (tobacco, alcohol, prescription drugs, illegal drugs) content on television and in PG-13– and R-rated movies, incorporating the topic of advertising and media into all substance abuse–prevention programs, and implementing media education programs in the classroom.
Robert F. Marcusa & Eric G. Jamison IIa, (2012)Substance Use in Adolescence and Early Adulthood: Which Best Predicts Violence in Early Adulthood? Pg 38-57 The authors used tests which had contributions of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, cocaine, LSD, PCP, and other illicit drugs to violence in early adulthood (e. g. , took part in a gang fight, pulled a knife or gun, used a weapon in a fight, used a weapon to get something).
The two main hypotheses were that well-known, non-substance abuse risk factors for violence in adolescence (e. g. , gender, race/ethnicity, poverty, adolescent violence, school failure) would continue to elevate the risk for violence in early adulthood. Furthermore, substance use in early adulthood would eclipse the contribution of substance use in adolescence, thus increasing the risk for early adult violence. Results supported both hypotheses. Substance use in adolescence may not have a lasting influence on adult violence.
In addition, the risk for early adult violence may be subject to contemporaneous influences of substance use as well as historical and contemporaneous non-substance use risk factors. Vincent B Van Hasselt, PhD &Brad Donohue, PhD (2007) Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse Vol. 16 Case studies that are of special clinical relevance or that describe innovative evaluation and intervention techniques, reviews, and theoretical discussions that contribute substantially to our understanding of child and adolescent substance abuse are also published.
Smith, Dana K. Johnson, Amber B. Pears, Katherine C. Fisher, Phillip A. DeGarmo, David S (2007) Child Maltreatment and Foster Care: Unpacking the Effects of Prenatal and Postnatal Parental Substance Use. The authors unpacked unique effects of (a) prenatal and postnatal parental alcohol and drug use and (b) maternal and paternal substance use as predictors of child maltreatment and foster care placement transitions in a sample of 117 maltreated foster care children. Models were tested with structural equation path modeling.
Results indicated that prenatal maternal alcohol use predicted child maltreatment and that combined prenatal maternal alcohol and drug use predicted foster care placement transitions. Prenatal maternal alcohol and drug use also predicted postnatal paternal alcohol and drug use, which in turn predicted foster care placement transitions. Findings highlight the potential integrative role that maternal and paternal substance use has on the risk for child maltreatment and foster care placement transitions.
Damaris J. Rohsenow, PhD, Richard Corbett, MD, Donald Devine, PhD (1988) Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, Volume 5, Issue 1, 1988, Pages 13-18 A history of child sexual victimization may be much more prevalent among substance abusers than previously suspected and may be commonly missed if not assessed directly in every patient. The rate of reporting child sexual abuse among inpatient substance abusers were compared before and after the question was routinely asked in a treatment program.
Before routine inquiry, 4% of men and 20% women disclosed such abuse but after routine inquiries began the rates for adult men quadrupled, up to 42% of the teenaged boys reported such abuse, about 75% of adult women admitted such abuse, and 71 to 90% of teenaged girls disclosed histories of child sexual abuse. Unresolved issues from childhood sexual abuse may be hidden factor underlying much substance abuse and if not treated may lead to rapid relapse. Jane Liebschutz, Jacqueline B. Savetsky, The relationship between sexual and physical abuse and substance abuse consequences.
This study examines the relationship between a history of physical and sexual abuse and drug and alcohol related consequences. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from 359 male and 111 female subjects recruited from an inpatient detoxification unit. The Inventory of Drug Use Consequences measured negative life consequences of substance use. Eighty-one percent of women and 69% of men report past ,starting at a median age of 13 and 11, respectively. In bivariate and multivariable analyses, PhySexAbuse was significantly associated with more substance abuse consequences ( p < 0. 01).
For men, age 17 years at first PhySexAbuse was significantly associated with more substance abuse consequences than an older age at first abuse, or no abuse ( p = 0. 048). For women, the association of PhySexAbuse with substance use consequences was similar across all ages ( p = 0. 59). Future research should develop interventions to lessen the substance abuse consequences of physical and sexual abuse. D 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. Anderson, Shawanda W. ; Moore, Paula A. The Impact of Education and School-Based Counseling on Children’s and Adolescents’ Views of Substance Abuse.
The purpose of this study was to investigate if a school-based education and counseling program (Life Skills Training Program) would have an impact on school-aged children/adolescents’ views of substance abuse. The study also investigated the degree and direction of change. Participants were 338 elementary or middle-school students in the metro Houston, Texas, area. Results indicated that preexisting views significantly differed from post-intervention views, and that the Life Skills Training Program provided participants with a more accurate view of substance abuse.
Findings support formulated hypotheses and effectiveness of the Life Skills Training Program with the sampled population. Matthew J. Taylora*, Stephanie M. Merritta & Chammie C. Austin (2012) Negative Affect, Delinquency, and Alcohol Use Among Rural and Urban African-American Adolescents, Volume 22. Issue 1 model of negative affect and alcohol use was replicated on a sample of African-American high school students.
Participants were randomly selected from a previously collected data set and consisted of 2,253 males and 2,833 females residing in both ural and urban locations. Multivariate analysis of covariance and structural equation modeling were performed. While fit indices suggest that the original model does apply to African-Americans, adding delinquency as a mediator significantly increased the variance accounted for in alcohol use. There were differences in the strength of model relationships based on gender and location of residence. Tyler B. Wraya, Rob D. Dvorakb, Jennifer F. Hsiaa, Ashley M. Arensa & William E.
Schweinlea, (2012) Optimism and Pessimism as Predictors of Alcohol Use Trajectories in Adolescence A range of research has recognized the benefits of optimism in a variety of health-related outcomes. Pessimism has received less attention but may be a distinct concept that is uniquely related to certain health behaviors, including drug use. The present study examined relationships between optimism and pessimism and alcohol use trajectories of adolescents using latent growth modeling. Results suggest that optimism was negatively associated with alcohol use at age 14, but pessimism was negatively associated with alcohol use at that age for boys.
Findings illustrate the importance of perceptions about the future to patterns of alcohol use at younger ages. Les B. Whitbeck, Dan R. Hoyt, Barbara J. McMorris, Xiaojin Chen and Jerry D. Stubben, Perceived Discrimination and Early Substance Abuse among American Indian Children Vol. 42, No. 4 (Dec. , 2001), pp. 405-424 This study investigated internalizing and externalizing symptoms as potential mediators of the relationship between perceived discrimination and early substance abuse among 195 American Indian 5 through 8 graders from three reservations that share a common culture (e. . , language, spiritual beliefs, and traditional practices) in the upper Midwest.
The findings indicated that, although perceived discrimination contributed significantly to internalizing symptoms among the adolescents, internalizing symptoms were unrelated to early substance abuse. Rather, the effects of perceived discrimination on early substance abuse were mediated by adolescent anger and delinquent behaviors. The results are discussed in terms of the consequences of perceived discrimination on the development of American Indian early adolescents.