Introduction 1Globalization has contributed to creating new opportunities and new perspectives. The world’s countries and citizens are bound together by a common destiny and this is influencing student migration. There has been a continuous increase in the number of students studying abroad. I have chosen to study the current situation of student migration and the Scottish university system. The international students studying abroad are financially beneficial as they spend money in the local economy, make minimum demands on public services and pay rent etc.
However, what other prospects and concerns do the students bring with them? Taking these considerations into account, my problem statement is: Problem statement Describe the current situation of international student migration and the tuition fees in Scotland. Discuss the economic policies that the host-country and send-off country could use in order to secure and protect them from student migration. Analyse the cultural factors that student migration brings and which prospects and concerns they pertain. Methodology In the synopsis I will make use of the methodology of International Economics A and English A.
I will use the economic theory and its concepts, especially economic policies, to determine the economic and social results of different political decisions. Furthermore, English will contribute with a cultural analysis. It will therefor be relevant for me to use Hofstede’s cultural theory, and apply it accordance with Scotland and China. The two subjects will help to get a better understanding of student migration and give the synopsis a further dept. It will also give me the opportunity to see how big cultural changes student migration brings.
The current situation of international student migration and the tuition fees in Scotland 2In regards to international students Scotland has more than 40. 000 international students from 180 countries each year. In 2013 the UK government made new immigration rules, which made international students welcomer. Scotland is known for having a diverse and high education sector and 3the number of students studying in Scotland is continuously increasing. Scotland wishes to make it even more attractive for students to study and work there, which can improve competitiveness within UK.
4 When students choose to study in Scotland, they will need to consider the tuition fees before applying for a university. Nationality and resident determine the level of tuition fees. European Union undergraduate students will be eligible to have the fees paid by the Scottish government, while international students will often have higher fees and can therefor apply for a scholarship. Economic policies: In regard to student migration As a result of limitations one must assume that the send-off country desire to keep the students once they are finished with their studies, so they can contribute to the economy and culturally.
One must also assume that the send-off country will hesitate to send students abroad, or urge the international students to come back home, to contribute to their resident country with the given knowledge. Because of student migration, countries can be more exposed to foreign influences and changes in the economic environment 5i. e. if the country in which the student has studied does not benefit from it at all, and the student decides to return home, also called brain drain. It is important to understand that this is all two sided. In this synopsis it will be a single-role country, but in real life it cannot be like this.
Another important consideration is the steadiness and reliability in the host-country, as the government will change during the educational period. Furthermore, in the Scottish affairs committee contents, it says: “International students provide important financial support to both the university sector and to the wider economy of Scotland. They also contribute culturally to the universities and communities where they study, and can act as ambassadors for Scotland on return to their home country. They make an overwhelmingly positive contribution to Scottish society. ” 6.
7The parliament desires to have more international students, because it can help their economy after the recession and especially since Scotland is in need of skilled technicians, managers and engineers to fill the future career opportunities in expanding industries such as life sciences, tourism and energy. Economic policies in the send-off country There are a few economic policies, which could be both beneficial for the send-off country, but also have some consequences. 1. Support students to study abroad and urge them to return: – Students would gain important knowledge and have a competitive advantage.
– Identification with national development and growth. – A labour market policy to benefit expatriates returning home. – Also, support student migration to benefit the country in the end. Consequences: The migrated student could have better opportunities in other countries, and therefor not migrate back to the resident country, and the country would lose some of the competitive advantage. 2. Government could improve the educational system within the country: – Urge students to study within the country, and thereby improving the system and competitiveness.
– Cooperate with other countries, so the students have the opportunity to read a semester or two abroad and thereby create awareness of other cultures and international economy. Consequences: The send-off countries could miss out on a global mindset and knowledge spill. Economic policies in the host country After a lot of research it would of course be relevant to mention some economic policies in the host-countries, which I believe could be very beneficial, but also have some consequences. 1. Attracting more international students – It could lower entry barriers i. e. student fees, university fees and credit transfer.
More students would have the opportunity to study abroad. – Skilled and educated students, when they have finished their education. – Improve and strengthen the education system. Consequences: It could be harder for local students to enter universities in the host-countries, as international students could take a lot of the university spots. It is important to have a balance between domestic and international students. 2. Encourage international students to stay – Improve the migration policy. – Ensure the students to have the opportunity to get a job afterwards – or an internship.
– Improvement of international competitiveness. Consequences: After the recession in Europe and other places, it could be hard for the host country to ensure students to get a job, and it would force them to return home or migrate to another country. Furthermore, in todays society there are a greater demand on well-educated people, and it would be hard competition between different markets/countries. Cultural factors 8To make a thorough analysis of the cultural factors, using Geert Hofstede’s cultural theory, I am going to compare UK to China, as Scotland receives most of their international students from China.
9Looking at power distance, UK is ranked very low, as they believe that inequality should be minimised. However, China is in the higher rankings of power distance, and believes that inequality is acceptable, and power abuses by superiors are adequate. Their high power distance also indicates collectivism. Furthermore, the two countries are very different in relations of long-term orientation. UK finds it acceptable to take one day at a time, whereas China is a highly long-term oriented society in which persistence and perseverance are normal.
There are many cultural differences when studying abroad in this aspect. Once the study is finished, the students must consider whether to stay or return home. One of the cultural factors that are important in the choice of returning to your home country is the sense of nationalism and personal relations to the country i. e. friends and network. When considering Chinese students, it would be very normal to return to the home country once the study has been completed, as they often have a sense of duty to their country.
There are a lot of positive cultural affects of student migration from China, as they can learn UK more about efficiency and collectivism. One must also consider the negative cultural affects it might bring. If sufficient students with a fluid time culture were to study in Scotland, who has a rigid culture, these students’ perception of time might be influencing the Scottish culture. Conclusion International students contribute a lot to Scotland. Scotland receives great diversity in the society and gets rich opportunity to gain knowledge about international competitiveness.
Economically international students are a blessing, but one must remember that by having a high number of international students, Scotland also becomes more exposed to foreign influences and macro-economic changes. When considering the economic factors, it is important to remember that it is all two sided. Host countries like Scotland should encourage students to stay after completing the studies, or promote them to come back later on, but it could also hurt the local students competitiveness by having too many international students, and that is also very risky.
Furthermore, send-off countries could improve their education system and quality, and provide international studies for the students. On the other hand they could encourage students to study in other countries, and give them more opportunities afterwards to make them come back. Culturally, Scotland receives students from countries with huge differences, including high power distance, which has both positive and negative affects. Cultural problems could appear when opposing cultural identities, with conflicting beliefs and values were to study in Scotland, and where many would have the urge to protect the Scottish national identity.
I believe that a global mindset is important, and that it is important to encourage international students to study abroad, as we can learn a lot from each other. Aspects to be elaborated on at the oral exam – Cultural comparison to other countries – Why do students choose to study abroad? Reflection of methodology I have mainly used official sources, either from the Scottish parliament or other governmental websites. Furthermore, I have used credited newspapers, and the date should not be dated further back than 2010. None of my sources contradict each other, but I find some of them very bias.
Due to the synopsis limitations it has been hard to cover parts of my problem statement completely, but I acknowledge that it would have been interesting to make a deeper analysis of student migration to Scotland. Especially the cultural analysis would have been remarkable to investigate further. Overall, it has been rather difficult to find useful sources for some parts of my analysis. Reflection of the process The process of working with DIO has been exciting. The two weeks of information and group work gave me a lot of ideas and new thoughts about the chosen subject.
The information we were given was very useful and I learned a lot of new terms, which has been very important for my synopsis. I quickly chose two subjects in one of the first days of the process. I desired to write about a topic, which I am going to relate to in the beginning of the summer 2014, as I am going to study in Australia. Furthermore, I have been given very good help from my teachers, as they have been giving me some interesting ideas and terms for my synopsis, and it made the working process a lot easier for me. Overall, the working process for me has been very efficient.
I chose to start early Wednesday morning and worked intensively until the evening. It has been rather difficult for some hours, but because of the good guidance I received from my teachers, it succeeded in the end. After this process, I feel more confident in the two subjects and I got to see international economics from another view. Bibliography Secondary sources: http://www. denstoredanske. dk/Samfund,_jura_og_politik/Okonomi/Udviklingsokonomi/globalisering Title: Globalisering Sender: Den store danske, 2010. http://www. scotland. org/study-in-scotland/fees-and-funding
Title: Study in Scotland Sender: Scottish government, 2013. http://www. telegraph. co. uk/news/uknews/scotland/8478223/Scottish-immigration-at-record-levels. html Title: Scottish immigration at record levels Sender: The telegraph, 2011. http://monitor. icef. com/2013/10/uks-new-immigration-rules-signal-more-welcoming-approach-to-international-students/ Title: UK’s new immigration rules Sender: ICEF monitor, 2013. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Brain_drain Title: Brain drain Sender: Wikipedia, 2013. http://www. publications. parliament.
uk/pa/cm201012/cmselect/cmscotaf/912/91204. htm Title: Student immigration to Scotland Sender: UK parliament, 2011. http://www. ukces. org. uk/publications/ambition2020-scotland Title: Towards Ambition 2020: skills, jobs, and growth for Scotland. Sender: UK commission for employment and skills, 2010. http://www. rebe. rau. ro/RePEc/rau/journl/SP08/REBE-SP08-A3. pdf Title: Cultural diversity in Business environment Primary sources: http://geert-hofstede. com/united-kingdom. html Title: United Kingdom in comparison to China Sender: The Hofstede centre Appendix 1.