A substance in a solid phase is relatively rigid, has a definite volume and shape. The atoms or molecules that comprise a solid are packed close together and are not compressible. Because all solids have some thermal energy, its atoms do vibrate. However, this movement is very small and very rapid, and cannot be observed under ordinary conditions. There are four types of crystalline solids : Ionic solids– These substances have a definite melting point and contain ionic bonds. An example would be sodium chloride (NaCl).
Covalent solids — These substance appear as a single giant molecule made up of an almost endless number of covalent bonds. An example would be graphite. Molecular solids are represented as repeating units made up of molecules. An example would be ice. Metallic solids are repeating units made up of metal atoms. The valence electrons in metals are able to jump from atom to atom. Amorphous solids Amorphous solids do not have a definite melting point or regular repeating units. An amorphous solid is a solid in which there is no long-range order of the positions of the atoms unlike those in crystalline solids.
An example of an amorphous solid is window glass. In addition many polymers such as polystyrene are amorphous. Amorphous solids can exist in two distinct states, the ‘rubbery’ state and the ‘glassy’ state. The temperature at which they transition between the glassy and rubbery states is called their glass transition temperature or Liquid Liquids have a definite volume, but are able to change their shape by flowing. Liquids are similar to solids in that the particles touch. However the particles are able to move around. Since particles are able to touch, the densities of liquid will be close to that of a solid.
Since the liquid molecules can move, they will take the shape of their container. Specific properties of liquids Viscosity –The resistance of a liquid to flow is called its viscosity Surface Tension — The result of attraction between molecules of a liquid which causes the surface of the liquid to act as a thin elastic film under tension. Surface tension causes water to form spherical drops. Vapor Pressure — The pressure that a solid or liquid exerts when it is in equilibrium with its vapor at a given temperature. Boiling Point — when vapor pressure = atmospheric pressure. GAS
Gases have no definite volume or shape. If unconstrained gases will spread out indefinitely. If confined they will take the shape of their container. This is because gas particle have enough energy to overcome attractive forces. Each of the particles are well separated resulting in a very low density. Gas Laws — There are several excellent interactive java applets which we recommend. PLASMA The fourth state of matter is plasma. Plasma is an ionized gas, a gas into which sufficient energy is provided to free electrons from atoms or molecules and to allow both species, ions and electrons, to coexist.
In effect a plasma is a cloud of protons, neutrons and electrons where all the electrons have come loose from their respective molecules and atoms, giving the plasma the ability to act as a whole rather than as a bunch of atoms. Plasmas are the most common state of matter in the universe comprising more than 99% of our visible universe and most of that not visible. Plasma occurs naturally and makes up the stuff of our sun, the core of stars and occurs in quasars, x-ray beam emitting pulsars, and supernovas. On earth, plasma is naturally occurring in flames, lightning and the auroras.
Most space plasmas have a very low density, for example the Solar Wind which averages only 10 particles per cubic-cm. Inter-particle collisions are unlikely – hence these plasmas are termed collisionless. DENSITY density (den’si-te) Pronunciation Key A measure of the quantity of some physical property (usually mass) per unit length, area, or volume(usually volume). ? Mass density is a measure of the mass of a substance per unit volume. Mostsubstances (especially gases such as air) increase in density as their pressure is increases or as theirtemperature decreases.
? Energy density is a measure of the amount of energy (often in the form ofelectromagnetic radiation) per unit volume in a region of space or some material. BUOYANCY In science, buoyancy /? b??.? nsi/ is an upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of an immersed object. In a column of fluid, pressure increases with depth as a result of the weight of the overlying fluid. Thus a column of fluid, or an object submerged in the fluid, experiences greater pressure at the bottom of the column than at the top. This difference in pressure results in a net force that tends to accelerate an object upwards.
The magnitude of that force is proportional to the difference in the pressure between the top and the bottom of the column, and (as explained byArchimedes’ principle) is also equivalent to the weight of the fluid that would otherwise occupy the column, i. e. the displaced fluid. For this reason, an object whose density is greater than that of the fluid in which it is submerged tends to sink. If the object is either less dense than the liquid or is shaped appropriately (as in a boat), the force can keep the object afloat.
This can occur only in a reference frame which either has a gravitational fieldor is accelerating due to a force other than gravity defining a “downward” direction (that is, a non-inertial reference frame). In a situation of fluid statics, the net upward buoyancy force is equal to the magnitude of the weight of fluid displaced by the body. STRESS Every particle of matter of which the Earth is comprised is experiencing stress. This stress is not of one type but of many which collaboratively act upon every body of matter continuously, perpetually, and without respite.
By definition, stress is defined as the ratio of the amount of force acting on an object to the area across which the force is acting. Stress is reasonably equivalent to pressure and both are expressed in the same units of measurement. Stresses are of many types, such as mechanical (the stresses exerted by the mass of one body in direct contact with and onto the mass of another body), thermal (the stresses exerted internally within a body as a consequence of the gain [or loss] of heat energy), and hydrostatic (the internal stresses possessed by bodies of fluid) to name a few.
One of the ways that bodies of matter respond to stresses is by deforming, that is, by changing shape. The deformation a body experiences in response to an applied stress is more commonly referred to as strain. By definition, strain is the ratio of the change in length of a linear feature possessed by a body between the undeformed and deformed states to its original undeformed length. Strain is therefore a number with no units of measurement. The larger the strain number, the greater the amount of deformation (or change in shape) a body has experienced.
Bear in mind that bodies are rarely stressed (and consequently strained) in one single direction or orientation.. Stresses and strains occur in all three space-dimensions and as such can become very complex to model, quantify, and interpret. Rocks experience stress and respond by straining in some very unique and fascinating ways. It is the responsibility of the structural geologist to attempt to determine the stress and strain history of a sequence of deformed rocks for the purpose of identifying the geologic phenomena responsible for producing the observed rock features.
TLE BIR- Bureau of Internal Revenue FIN- DTI – Department of trade and industry DOLE Department of Labor and Employment SEC Securities and Exchange Commission SSS Social Security System CPA Certified Public Accountant IPD integrated project delivery OIC Office of International Communications/ Organization of Islamic Committee GSIS Government Service Insurance System Francisco Balagtas Si Francisco Baltazar ay ipinanganak noong Abril 2, 1788 sa Panginay, Bigaa (ngayon ay Balagtas), Bulacan. Tinatawag rin siyang Kiko at Balagtas.
Ang mga magulang niya ay sina Juana dela Cruz at Juan Baltazar at ang mga kapatid rin niya ay sina Felipe, Concha at Nicolasa. Halimbawa ng nai ambag ni Balagtas sa panitikan ay ang Florante at Laura, at mga dulang duplo, at karagatan. Padre Modesto de Castro Si Padre Modesto de Castro ay itinuring na pangunahing manunulat noong ika-19 na daantaon. Tubong Binan, Laguna, kinilala siya dahil sa kanyang angking kakayahan sa pagsulat ng mga sermong pampulitika na kanyang binibigkas at nang tumagal ay sinulat para malathala.
Ang mga panitikan namang ukol sa kabutihang-asal ay ang Urbana at Feliza ang naimbag ni Padre Modesto de Castro LUALHATI BAUTISTA Si Lualhati Bautista ay isang bantog na babaeng Pilipinong manunulat. Kadalasan, ang mga akda niya ay nasa anyong nobela o maikling kwento, pero nakalikha na rin siya ng ilang akdang-pampelikula. Pinanganak si Lualhati Bautista sa Tondo, Manila noong Disyembre 2, 1945. Nagtapos siya sa Emilio Jacinto Elementary School noong 1958, at sa Torres High School noong 1962. Naging journalism major siya sa Lyceum of the Philippines, ngunit nag-drop out bago man niya matapos ang kanyang unang taon.
Ilan sa mga nobela niya ang: Gapo, Dekada ’70, at Bata, Bata, Pa’no Ka Ginawa? na nakapagpanalo sa kanya ng Palanca Award ng tatlong beses: noong 1980, 1983, at 1984. Nakatanggap din siya ng dalawang Palanca Award para sa dalawa sa kanyang mga maikling kwento: Tatlong Kuwento ng Buhay ni Juan Candelabra (unang gantimpala, 1982) at Buwan, Buwan, Hulugan mo Ako ng Sundang (pangatlong gantimpala, 1983). Noong 1984, ang kanyang script para sa Bulaklak ng City Jail ay nagwagi bilang Best Story-Best Screenplay sa Metro Manila Film Festival, Film Academy Awards, at Star Awards.
Tomas Pinpin Si Tomas Pinpin ay kilala bilang unang Pilipino-Intsik na manunulat at tinaguriang “Prinsipe ng Manlilimbag sa Pilipino”. Ang araw ng kapanganakan ni Tomas Pinpin ay hindi naitala, subalit pinaniniwalaang siya ay isinilang sa pagitan ng mga taong 1580 at 1585 sa Abucay, Bataan. Naiambag ni Tomas Pinpin ang pinakaunang newsletter sa bansa noong 1637 – ang Successos Felices (Fortunate Events) Cecilio Apostol Tubong Santa Cruz, Maynila, isinilang siya noong Nobyembre 22, 1877. Anim silang magkakapatid at siya ang pangatlo mula sa panganay.
Ang kanyang mga magulang ay sina Jose Pablo Apostol at Marcelina delos Reyes. Sumulat ng mga oda para kay Rizal Lope K. Santos Sa larangan ng panitikan Ipinanganak si Lope K. Santos sa Pasig, Rizal – bilang Lope C. Santos – sa mag-asawang Ladislao Santos at Victoria Canseco, na kapwa mga katutubo sa Rizal. Sumulat ng obra-maestrang “Banaag at Sikat” at nagpauso ng panitikang sosyalista. Saverino Reyes Si Severino Reyes ay isinilang sa Santa Cruz, Maynila noong Pebrero 12, 1861. Ikalima siya sa mga anak ng mag-asawang Rufino Reyes at Andrea Rivero.
Nagtapos siya ng Bachelor of Philosophy and Letters sa Unibersidad ng Santo Tomas. Kilala siya bilang Ama ng Sarsuelang Tagalog. Sa kanyang pagsusulat ng mga kuwentong pambata, ginamit niya ang sagisag na Lola Basyang. Sumulat ng imortal na dulang “Walang Sugat Liwayway Arceo Si Liwayway A. Arceo ay ipinanganak sa Manila noong ika 30 ng Enero 1924 mula sa kilalang pamilya ng mga manunulat Genoveva Edroza-Matute Si Genoveva Edroza-Matute (Enero 3, 1915 – Marso 21, 2009) ay isang bantog kuwentistang Pilipino. Isa rin siyang guro at may-akda ng aklat sa
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