Culture is an inevitable aspect of organizational life because this provides the context for communication, interaction, and meaning derivation in groups (Schein, 2004). Four cultures of the academy provide contexts for academic organizations. These cultures are collegial, managerial, developmental and negotiated. Collegial culture refers to freedom guiding attitudes and behavior that fosters open communications and group decision-making but results in the slow progress of change and limited organizational coherence and control.
Structure characterizes managerial culture with outcomes and performance aligned with predetermined goals so that accountability and supervision are key values. Development culture stresses on collaboration and career growth that leans towards the collegial or managerial culture depending on the existence of funding and value creation by consumers. Issue confrontation and bargaining comprise the core elements of negotiated culture and operates more as an offshoot of managerial culture in handling human resource management.
(Bergquist, 1992; Bergquist & Pawlak, 2008) As such, these cultures could operate simultaneously. Furthermore, the four cultures could also find application in the business context. The four cultures have similarities and differences in application to the business context. The four cultures similarly guide organizational dynamics and structure (Schein, 2004). Collegial culture advocates a democratic and loose group organization (Bergquist, 1992; Bergquist & Pawlak, 2008). Small business firms usually apply a collegial culture because the small size of the organizational allows for direct and open communications.
Managerial culture involves formal and organized structure (Bergquist, 1992; Bergquist & Pawlak, 2008). Large business firms usually implement a managerial culture because of the need for a formal structure to facilitate organizational cohesion. Developmental culture could lean towards a more loose or more formal organization (Bergquist, 1992; Bergquist & Pawlak, 2008). Service organizations such as IT companies and other innovation driven firms commonly use the development culture to allow room for freedom to innovate but at the same time require accountability for resource use and supervision of service development.
Negotiated culture calls for a formal but consultative organizational dynamics (Bergquist, 1992; Bergquist & Pawlak, 2008). Manufacturing firms with an organized labor force exemplify the negotiated culture. The four cultures also similarly prescribe a mode of decision-making process in business firms but with differences in participation and execution (Schein, 2004). Collegial culture calls for group decision-making (Bergquist, 1992; Bergquist & Pawlak, 2008). This applies to small firms because of the inability of all members of the business to sit down, exchange ideas, and derive a compromise.
Managerial culture provides for top-down decision-making (Bergquist, 1992; Bergquist & Pawlak, 2008) within the formal structure of some large firms because of the difficulty in involving everybody in decision-making. Developmental culture calls for mixed decision-making process (Bergquist, 1992; Bergquist & Pawlak, 2008) expressed through the consultation or participation of managers in providing feedback from the frontline in decision-making. Negotiated culture calls for collective decision-making in the case of organized workforce and representation during consultations with management (Bergquist, 1992; Bergquist & Pawlak, 2008).
Change similarly occurs in these four cultures but varying in nature, speed and scale (Schein, 2004). Change is slow and protracted in a collegial culture (Bergquist, 1992; Bergquist & Pawlak, 2008) because the democratic organization leads to weakness in organizational control and cohesion. Managerial decision-making could lead to fast and radical change (Bergquist, 1992; Bergquist & Pawlak, 2008) because of the strong management control and goal-driven operation. Large businesses firms with strong management are capable of controlling and directing change.
Change in a developmental culture could vary in speed and scale (Bergquist, 1992; Bergquist & Pawlak, 2008) depending on the extent of group organization, management control, resource availability, and human resource participation of the business firm. Change in negotiated culture could also vary (Bergquist, 1992; Bergquist & Pawlak, 2008) in nature, speed and scale depending on the outcomes of the consultation between management and representatives of organized workforce or consideration of stakeholder interests.
The four cultures describe and prescribe aspects of organizational dynamics but these differ in application for different business firms depending on the culture or culture combination implemented. References Bergquist, W. H. (1992). The four cultures of the academy. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Bergquist, W. H. , & Pawlak, K. (2008). Engaging the six cultures of the academy. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Schein, E. H. (2004). Organizational culture and leadership (3rd ed. ). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
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