Outcome1: Know what stroke is.
1. Identify the changes in the brain associated with stroke.
Changes in the brain will be that some parts are not getting the blood supply which then leads to dead tissue causing a form of disability depending on the area of the brain affected.
2. Outline other conditions that may be mistaken for stroke.
Postictal state – happens after a seizure.
Hypoglycemia – blood sugars drop, which can cause body paralysis, however a person with this will always have an altered mental state. A stroke patient doesn’t. Subdural or Epidural bleeding – as bleeding grows it pushes on brain which will mean you have difficulty communicating and moving. Less common illness and diseases can also disturb metabolic functions causing you to think it’s a stroke.
3. Define the difference between Stroke and Transient Ischaemic Attack ( TIA ) Difference between them is, a sstroke causes perminante damage to the brain, as lack of blood supply causes tissues to die – a TIA can last for up to 24 hours, but the blockage either breaks up and moves on or the tissue that needs the supply can get the blood from another vessel.
Outcome 2: Know how to recognise stroke.
1. List the signs and symptoms of stroke.
Face drops to one side
Problems with balance and coordination
Severe headaches all of a sudden, unlike before and it also accompanied with neck stiffness.
2. Identify the key stages of stroke.
Face, arm and speech
3. Identify the assessment test that are available to enable listing of the signs and symptoms.
Check their face, is it dropping to one side, or are they finding it hard to smile. Can they lift their arm/arms or keep them in a certain position because their might be a weakness or numbness. Has their speech become slurred/garbled, or are they able to speak at all.
4. Describe the potential changes that an individual may experience as a result of stroke.
Cognitive challenges – they have trouble solving problems
Personality changes – experience apathy and don’t seem to care about anything. Usually mistaken for depression. Best to keep them active.
Outcome 3: Understand the management of risk factors for stroke.
1. State the prevalence of stroke in the UK
Northern Ireland – strokes per year 4,000, living with a stroke 32,000 Scotland – strokes per year 12,500, living with a stroke 120,000 Wales – strokes per year 11,000, living with a stroke 65,100 England – strokes per year 13,500, living with a stroke 128,175
2. Identify the common risk factors for stroke
High blood pressure
Warning signs or history of a stroke
3. Describe how risk factors may vary in different settings
It all varies as one person’s lifestyle may be ok for them, yet that same lifestyle for another person may be deadly.
4. Define the steps that can be taken to reduce the risk of stroke and subsequent stroke
Controlling high blood pressure
Eating fruit and veg
Alcohol in moderation
Avoid illicit drugs
Outcome 4: Understand the importance of emergency response and treatment for stroke
1. Describe why stroke is a medical emergency.
A stroke is a form of brain attack, which is when blood and oxygen can’t get to a certain part of the brain causing cells to die. This causes permanent damage. Basically the longer you take to get to the hospital, the more damage there is.
2. Describe the actions to be taken in response to an emergency stroke incident in line with agreed ways of working
You’d phone 999.
3. Identify the impact on the individual of the key stages of stroke
It can have an emotional impact on the individual.
4. Identify the correct early positioning for airway management.
Tilt head and lift chin.
5. Identify the information that needs to be included in reporting relevant and accurate history of the incident.
Outcome 5: Understand the management of stroke.
1. Describe why effective stroke care is important to the management of stroke.
It can prevent long term disability and save lives.
2. Identify support available to individuals and others affected by stroke.
Speech and language therapy
Specialist stroke physiotherapy
3. Identify other agencies or recourses to signpost individual or others for additional support and guidance.
There are agencies ie Stroke Association and Nice, who help support and guide people who have a stroke. They can also ask their GP’s or look online for recourse to help.