The concept or theory evident herein is the theory of cooperation. This theory encourages the inter-relation of state and non-state actors in the aversion of adversity. Cooperation in situations of conflict calls for dissection of the causes and consequences as well as the solutions relevant to the situation at hand, in this case Somalia. The war in Somalia began in 1991 and has been raging on for more than twenty years and has seen the Somali government lose substantial control of the state to rebel forces.
The international community intervened in the country upon request for intermediate international support and the military intervention of neighboring East African states by the Somali government. This was after the government declared a state of emergency in the country in June 2009 . The article discusses at length the involvement of various countries in the Somali conflict and the subsequent discussions on how to solve the ongoing war. The country of focus is Ethiopia and this is due to the fact that the Ethiopian government has been involved for twenty years in Somalia.
Ethiopia was chosen by IGAD and the African Union as early as 1992 to play a key role in helping to stabilize Somalia . The article further explores the role of super powers such as the United States of America in ensuring that peace reigns in Somalia. The administration led by President Barrack Obama is set to employ a more holistic approach when dealing with the conflict in Somalia to avoid being seen as partisan in the hope of strengthening the government. There are two conflicting theories in the Somali affair; liberalism and realism.
Al-shabaab processes and way of involvement in the society is supported by the realist train of thought. Realism proposes that it is inevitable to engage in any kind of conflict or war in order to foster cooperation. This conflict is fueled by the inter-clan wars within the country and the only way deemed fit for each of the conflicting clans to lay their claim on the land is through war. Liberalism, a proponent of the international community, holds that there are other peaceful means of fostering cooperation and hence there needs to be alternatives employed such as dialogue.
The African Union, though it has deployed troops to Somalia, has held numerous talks with the Somali delegation from the warring clans to come up with a way forward and to deal with the issues that make them fight. The theoretical framework of cooperation, more so in respect to conflict, is seen as a neo-realist approach to international relations. It assumes that cooperation is possible in the anarchic system of states. This can be taken to mean that even when there are antagonistic powers within a state, there is still room for peaceful negotiations and consensus building.
In the article in question, there are elements of this theory in light of the international community and international bodies intervening to reason out and try to level out the conflict at hand. The theories in question here serve to explain the phenomenon in Somalia today. They help put into perspective the involvement of the international community as well as regional and international bodies in this country. However, the theories do not fully address the matters involved in the Somali conflict conclusively.
Liberalism advocates for non-violent approach to the quest of cooperation. There are notably various factors leading to the antagonistic nature of the warring parties in this land. The best theory to be employed in the case would be defensive realism . This best explains the need for either or all of the warring clans to express themselves in a hostile manner. Defensive realism seeks to understand the dynamics of anarchy including the reasons why people, states and non state actors are anarchical in nature.
Perhaps this theory would serve as an eye opener into the Somali situation. Conclusion The involvement of the international community and the regional bodies especially in Africa in the conflict in Somalia raises questions on the validity and relevance of the Somali government and whether or not countries should heed their call in future. The ideal situation would be to sort out the internal systems in order to curb the anarchy. However, the case is the complete opposite; there does not seem to be hope for a peaceful solution to this war.
It therefore begs the question should there be developed an entirely new theory to address the continuing war in Somalia? The existing theories do not seem to be addressing this matter appropriately. Bibliography 1“Ethiopia rejects Somali request”. BBC News. June 21, 2009. http://news. bbc. co. uk/2/hi/africa/8111312. stm 2 Elmi, Afyare Abdi. Allies at odds over Somalia, June 29, 2010. Al Jazeera 3 Taliaferro, Jeffrey. W. International Security. 2000. Volume 25 i3 Pg 128.