sample
Haven't found the Essay You Want?
GET YOUR CUSTOM ESSAY SAMPLE
For Only $12.90/page

Stereotyping, Discrimination and Prejudice Essay

STEREOTYPING, DISCRIMINATION AND PREJUDICE IN KNUST

TABLE CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE 2 CONTENTS 3-4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 5 DEDICATION 6 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 7-15 1.0 Background of the study

2.1 Statement of the problem
2.2 Research Questions
2.3 Objectives of the study
2.4 Assumptions of the study
2.5 Justification of the study
2.6 Significance of the Study
2.7 Conceptualization
2.8 Scope of Study
2.9 Methodology
2.10.1 Research Design and type of study
2.10.2 Measurement
2.10.3 Sampling technique
2.10.4 Sampling Size
2.10.5 Sources of data collection
2.10.6 Units of Analysis
2.10.7 Method of data collection
2.10.8 Method of data analysis
2.10 Limitation of the study
2.11 Organization of the study
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 16-29 2.1 Introduction
2.2 Definition of key terms
2.3 Theories and models
2.4 Identify why people stereotype, discriminate and prejudice against
others in the society. 2.5 Examine the sources of stereotype, discriminate and prejudice in the society. 2.6 Recognize the role of stereotyping, discrimination and prejudice in tribal conflicts. 2.7 Discover strategies for dealing with stereotyping, discrimination and prejudice related situations. 2.8 Conceptual framework

CHAPTER 3: DATA ANALYSIS 30-56 CHAPTER 4: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 57-62

ACKNOWLEGEMENT
We are grateful to the almighty God for His protection and direction throughout this research. We wish to thank our lecturers Dr. Frances Azumah and Dr. Henry Yeboah for taking us through the research course. The faculty librarian, the research teaching assistant and all those who contributed to make this work a success, we say thank you!!!

DEDICATION
To all those who have once in their lives being victims of stereotype, discrimination and prejudice.

CHAPTER 1
1.0 INTRODUCTION
We believe that there should be mutual respect between individuals, which is a vital pre-requisite for social harmony. Our society needs to be more accommodating and less prejudiced. It is incumbent upon us to properly address the issue of stereotyping, prejudice and discrimination in earnest so that we may move forward to a healthier and more caring society. 2.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Stereotype is an image or idea of a particular type of person or thing that has become fixed through being widely held. Discrimination is to make an unjust distinction in the treatment of different categories of people, especially on the grounds of race, sex or age. Prejudice is a preconceived opinion that is not based on reason or actual experience. (Source: Concise Oxford Dictionary) Stereotype is to decide, usually unfairly, that certain people have particular qualities or abilities because they belong to a particular race, sex or social class. Discrimination is the practice of treating one particular group in the society in an unfair way. Prejudice is to influence someone so that they have an unfair or unreasonable opinion about someone or something. (Source: Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English) Globally, stereotypes, discrimination and prejudice are understood as related but different concepts. Stereotypes are regarded as the most cognitive component, discrimination as the behavioral component of prejudicial reactions and prejudice as the affective. In this tripartite view of intergroup attitudes, stereotypes reflect expectations and beliefs about the characteristics of members of groups perceived as different from one’s own, discrimination refers to actions, prejudice represents the emotional response. Stereotypes are not only harmful in their own right; they do damage by fostering prejudice and discrimination.

Although related, the three concepts can exist independently of each other. According to Daniel Katz and Kenneth Braly, stereotyping leads to racial prejudice when people emotionally react to the name of a group, ascribe characteristics to members of that group, and then evaluate those characteristics. Moral philosophers have defined discrimination as disadvantageous treatment or consideration. This is a comparative definition. An individual need not be actually harmed in order to be discriminated against. He or she just needs to be treated worse than others for some arbitrary reason. The United Nations stance on discrimination includes the statement: “Discriminatory behaviors take many forms, but they all involve some form of exclusion or rejection.” (Source: Wikipedia) Stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination reflect the human tendencies to conceptualize and value certain configurations of phenotypic features differently, and act on these thoughts and feelings in our interactions with members of racial categories. Racial categorization reflects the process of placing people into distinct groups based on variation in phenotypic physical features of the face and body such as skin color, hair color and texture, eye shape, nose width, and lip fullness.

Racial stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination reflect the human tendencies to conceptualize and value certain configurations of phenotypic features differently, and act on these thoughts and feelings in our interactions with members of racial categories. In both overt and subtle forms, stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination exhibited among individuals belonging to different racial categories has long been a significant source of social strife in American society and abroad. In general, individuals with physical features associated with Whites (lighter skin color, lighter and straighter hair, rounder eyes, narrower nose, thinner lips) are advantaged compared to individuals with features associated with other racial categories. (Maddox, 2012) In Ghana, stereotyping, discrimination and prejudice is alive and kicking in Ghana like it is in any other society. Specifically, the statement brings to the fore some of the unhelpful ethnic slurs or ethno-phaulisms that cut across Ghana’s multiethnic society. There are ethnic stereotypes like Ashanti men are braggers throw their money around and have a superiority complex but they are very ambitious and hard working. Ga men are big talkers but are not big spenders, they are too stingy. Ewe men use juju too much, but are good scholars. Fanti men are romantic and sophisticated but are too honest, so they lack tactfulness and diplomacy. Dagomba men are tall, dark and handsome, but expect one or two rivals wives if you marry one. Akuapem men are very polite and gentlemanly. Kwahu men are very business-minded but stash their money in their house rather than in the bank. 2.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

We are concerned with how stereotypes, discrimination and prejudice affect our judgment with others and therefore the relationship we have with people. 2.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
* Why do people stereotype, discriminate and prejudice against others? * What are the sources of stereotyping, discrimination and prejudice? * What are the roles of stereotyping, discrimination and prejudice in tribal conflicts? * What are the strategies for dealing with stereotyping, discrimination and prejudice? 2.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

GENERAL OBJECTIVE:
To synthesize the people of KNUST, most especially the students as to effects of stereotype, discrimination and prejudice on KNUST campus. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES:
* Identify why people stereotype, discriminate and prejudice. * Examine the sources of stereotype, discriminate and prejudice. * Recognize the role of stereotyping, discrimination and prejudice in tribal conflicts. * Discover strategies for dealing with stereotyping, discrimination and prejudice related situations. 2.5 ASSUMPTIONS/ HYPOTHESIS

* People stereotype, discriminate and prejudice against others in the society because of the desire to dominate and control members of other groups. * People stereotype, discriminate and prejudice because they are unable to obtain all the information to make a fair judgment. * Negative stereotyping, discrimination and prejudices cause conflicts among individuals. * Understanding and appreciating other people’s values and culture will help decrease stereotyping, discrimination and prejudice in the society. 2.6 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY

To seek new insights; to ask questions and assess phenomena in a different perspective in relation to what others have done on the topic. It will educate us about value diversity and equal opportunity. We will understand how to challenge assertively expressions of stereotyping, discrimination and prejudice. Develop a responsible attitude towards person relationships. 2.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

* The study will help us to develop knowledge on our field of research. * The study on stereotyping, discrimination and prejudice will enable us explain to others what it entails and it consequences on human life. * The study will enable us develop our skill in research. * Educate others on the topic.

2.8 CONCEPTUALIZATION
Gender: Women over the years have fought shoulder to shoulder with men to gain recognition and freedom from all source of discrimination and recognition from their hard work and worth. Ethnicity and tribalism: Tribalism infers the possession of a strong cultural or ethnic identity that separate one member of a group from the members of another group. Religion: It involves treating someone differently because that person is associated with an individual of a particular religion or because of his or her connection with a religious organization. Age: It involves treating someone unfairly or less favorably because of his age. Age discrimination can take a form of harassment for example offensive remarks about a person’s age such as teasing offhand comments etc. Program of study: with the program of study, some people look down on other people’s program of study because they feel theirs is better than the others. 2.9 METHODOLOGY

2.10.1 RESEARCH DESIGN AND TYPE OF STUDY
Social survey design is a popular and commonly used strategy in social science research and is frequently used to answer who, what, where, how much and how many questions. They allow the collection of large amount of data from a sizable population in a highly economical way. Social Survey Design allows researchers to carry out studies in natural real life settings using probability samples thus increasing external validity of the studies. Using a social survey design will give you more control over the research process and when sampling is used, it is possible to generate findings that are a representative of the whole population at lower cost than collecting the data for the whole population. 1.9.2 SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

Purposive sampling technique will be used for our sampling technique. With this technique, the researcher selects sampling units subjectively in an attempt to obtain a sample that appears to be a representative of the population. This method is been used also because of its relative advantage of time and cost 1.9.3 SAMPLE SIZE

Selected students from various halls and hostels.
1.9.4 METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION
Questionnaire includes all techniques of data collection in which each person is asked to respond to the same set of questions in a predetermined order. 1.9.5 SOURCES OF DATA  Sources of data include the primary source, secondary source and the tertiary source. We will use all the three sources of data. Primary sources include journals, memoirs, dairies, newspapers, reports, interviews, raw data and many more. Secondary sources include books, television and radio documentaries, conference proceedings etc. Tertiary sources Google, Wikipedia, dictionaries, encyclopaedias, Ghana web, Modern Ghana etc. 1.9.6 UNITS OF ANALYSIS

The unit of analysis is Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology which has a student population of about 45,000. Established in 1952, KNUST has a rich history in its evolution into a first class University over the years. Kwame Nkrumah, the African Personality of the Century and pioneer of African independence is the founder of KNUST. KNUST believes in achievement through diligence and commitment. 1.9.7 LIMITATION OF DATA COLLECTION

Possible low response rate
Members in a group may influence one’s decision
Limited input from participants
Certain data may be unavailable
It may be time consuming
The research may intimidate and suppress individual differences 1.9 ORRGANISATION OF THE STUDY
EVENTS| TIME FRAME|
Introduction| 1 week|
Collecting information for literature review| 8 weeks|
Administering questionnaires and collection| 2 weeks|
Analysis of data collected| 2 weeks|
Conclusion and summary| 2 weeks|
Total time to be used| 17 weeks|

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
The terms stereotype, discrimination and prejudice are often used interchangeably in everyday conversation. But when discussing these terms from a sociological perspective, it is important to define them: stereotypes are oversimplified ideas about groups of people; discrimination refers to actions toward them and prejudice refers to thoughts and feelings about those groups. (Colledge, 2013) Stereotype is an image or idea of a particular type of person or thing that has become fixed through being widely held (Source: Concise Oxford Dictionary). Stereotype is to decide, usually unfairly, that certain people have particular qualities or abilities because they belong to a particular race, sex or social class(Source: Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English) Discrimination is to make an unjust distinction in the treatment of different categories of people, especially on the grounds of race, sex or age. Source: Concise Oxford Dictionary. Discrimination is the practice of treating one particular group in the society in an unfair way. (Source: Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English) Prejudice is a preconceived opinion that is not based on reason or actual experience.

(Source: Concise Oxford Dictionary). Prejudice is to influence someone so that they have an unfair or unreasonable opinion about someone or something. (Source: Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English) THEORIES RELATING STEREOTYPING, DISCRIMINATION AND PREJUDICE What are the reasons for stereotyping, discrimination and prejudice people? Let’s look at the theories that social scientists have suggested: To be able to measure the existence and extent of stereotyping, discrimination and prejudice of a particular kind in a particular social or economic domain, it is necessary to have a theory of how such issue might occur and what its effects might be. Scapegoat Theory: This prejudice springs from frustration among people who are themselves disadvantaged (Dollard, 1939). A scapegoat is a person or category of people typically with little power, whom people unfairly blame for their own troubles. Authoritarian Personality Theory: According to T.W. Adorno et al. (1950), extreme prejudice is a personality trait in certain individuals. This conclusion is supported by research showing that people who display strong prejudice toward one minority usually are intolerant of all minorities. These people look upon society as naturally competitive and hierarchical, with “better” people (like them) inevitably dominating those who are weaker.

Culture Theory: This theory says that stereotyping, discriminating and prejudice may be characteristic of certain people, but some of this is found in everyone because it is embedded in culture. Think of a child growing up and their parents telling them they should marry from the same ethnic group. Conflict Theory: Part of this theory is when powerful people use prejudice to justify oppression others. An example is when minorities claim that they are victims and therefore are entitled to special consideration based on their race. (DJL, 2008) WHY PEOPLE STEREOTYPE, DISCRIMINATE AND PREJUDICE AGAINST OTHERS IN THE SOCIETY The ability to form general categories is an essential feature of human thought. Without it, we could not make sense of the world. Being able to classify our experiences, the people around us, and the material objects of our culture under general headings enables us to behave in new circumstances. We can then respond in appropriate ways to things and people we have never seen before. It allows us to carry over what we have learned in one situation to another similar situation. However, unlike other forms of categorization, stereotyping provides categories that are little, if at all modified by experience and knowledge.

People will often ignore or re-interpret experiences in which an individual does not conform to the stereotype of the group, rather than change the stereotype. (Lorne Tepperman, 1991, p. 187) People discriminate out of ignorance and Selfishness and that they don’t think about how it would make other people feel also to make them feels better. (Why do people discriminate, 2012) When people encounter instances that disconfirm their stereotypes of a particular group, they tend to assume that those instances are atypical subtypes of the group. Example: Ben stereotypes gay men as being not athletic. When he meets Al, an athletic gay man, he assumes that Al is not a typical representative of gay people. People’s perceptions are influenced by their expectations. Example: Liz has a stereotype of elderly people as mentally unstable. When she sees an elderly woman sitting on a park bench alone, talking out loud, she thinks that the woman is talking to herself because she is unstable. Liz fails to notice that the woman is actually talking on a cell phone. People selectively recall instances that confirm their stereotypes and forget about disconfirming instances. Researchers find it difficult to measure prejudice. One reason for this is that people differ in the type and extent of prejudice they harbor. For example, a person who makes demeaning comments about a particular ethnic group may be bigoted or just ignorant. Also, people often do not admit to being prejudiced. (Source: (Lewin, 2012), 14th November, 2012, 10am)

Why do we form opinions about other people based on their appearance, posture, language, and so on? We do this because different factors contribute to why people stereotype each other. We stereotype, discriminate and prejudice other people when we are unable or unwilling to obtain all of the information we need to make a fair judgment about people or situations. In the absence of the so called ‘total picture,’ to stereotype people in many cases allow us to ‘fill in the missing pieces of information.” Our society often innocently creates and perpetuates stereotypes, but these stereotypes often lead to unfair discrimination and persecution when the person been stereotype is unfavorable. For example, if we are walking through a park late at night and encounter three senior citizens wearing fur coats and walking with canes, we may not feel as threatened as if we were met by three high school-aged boys wearing hoodies. These generalizations root from our experiences we have had ourselves, read in books, and magazines, seen in movies or television, or have had related to us by friends and family. In many cases, these stereotypical generalizations are reasonably accurate.

Yet in virtually, every case we are resorting to is prejudice by ascribing characteristics about a person based on appearance, without knowledge of the total facts. By stereotyping, we assume that a person or a group of certain characteristics. Quite often, we have stereotyped a person who might be a member of a group with which we have not had firsthand contact with before. (Why do we stereotype?, 2012). According to psychologist Gordon Allport, prejudice and stereotypes emerge in part as a result of normal human thinking. In order to make sense of the world around us, it is important to sort information into mental categories. “The human mind must think with the aid of categories,” Allport explained. “Once formed, categories are the basis for normal prejudgment. We cannot possibly avoid this process. Orderly living depends upon it.” This process of categorization applies to the social world as well, as we sort people into mental groups based on factors such as age, sex and race. (Cherry, 2013) SOURCES OF STEREOTYPING, DISCRIMINATION AND PREJUDICE IN THE SOCIETY AUTHORITHAIANISM

The authoritarian personality is rigid and inflexible and has a very low tolerance for uncertainty. People with this type of personality have great respect for authority figures and quickly submit to their will. They place a high value on conventional behavior. By labeling unconventional people ‘inferior’, ‘immature’ or ‘degenerate’, the authoritarians avoid s any need to question their beliefs and attitudes. SCAPE-GOATING

Unpopular minority groups are often used as scapegoats for other people’s problems. They are blamed for wide varied things that they could not possibly have caused. The term originates from a Hebrew tradition. On Yom Kippur, a goat was set loose in the wilderness after the high priest had symbolically laid all the sins of the person on its head (Leviticus 16:20-22). One explanation of scape-goating is the frustration-aggression theory. Its three basic principles are that; (1) Frustration produces aggression.

(2) This aggression cannot safely be directed against powerful people and (3) The aggression is therefore transferred to weaker individual who cannot fight such as members of an unpopular minority group. LEARNING

Although prejudice and discrimination are sometimes associated with certain personality traits or with frustration, both are learned. South Africans do not need authoritarian personalities to have strong racial prejudice, because they learn such attitudes from their culture. Most prejudice is acquired early in the socialization process. Children adopt their parents’ prejudice as naturally as they adopt their parents’ language, and discrimination follow prejudice as regularly as night follows day. Some of the most common prejudices are taken from ethnic stereotype- ideas that portray all the members of a group as having similar fixed, usually unfavorable characteristics. ECONOMICS

Conflicts between ethnic groups foster prejudice and discrimination. Some social scientists particularly Marxists, are convinced that all conflict stems from economic causes. Whether one accepts this idea or not, there is ample evidence that, the realities of economic completion lies beneath much prejudice and discrimination. In times of high unemployment, members of the dominant group can protect their jobs by making sure that members of subordinate groups are dismissed first. It has long been noted that anti black prejudice is high among white-working class men who compete with blacks for low paying, unskilled jobs. POLITICS

The quest for power promotes prejudice and discrimination just as the quest for money does. Dominant groups use discrimination as a technique for maintaining their power, appealing to popular prejudice to justify their discrimination. In some societies, political discrimination is obvious and accepted fact of life. For example, South African does not allow native Africans to vote and until quite recently, many American communities denied the same right to their black citizens. (Coleman, 2002, pp. 193-196) ROLE OF STEREOTYPING, DISCRIMINATING AND PREJUDICE IN TRIBAL CONFLICTS Stereotypes distort history through oversimplification but they are also extremely dangerous breeding grounds for bigotry, fear, resentment, irrationality, animosity, hatred and ethnic conflict and cleansing. Stereotypes generate self-serving attitudes such as we deserve more because we sacrificed more than others, they are suffering because it is their own fault, and it is their problem since they are killing their own people and it is their government and we have nothing to do with it. In extremes cases, stereotypes have culminated in mass violence, the mass displacement of millions of fellow citizens, ethnic cleansing, pogroms and genocide. (A.B.K. Kasozi, 1999; G. Prunier, 1995; P. Gourevitch, 1998 and M. Mamdam, 2002). The concept of tribe was derogatorily developed in the 19th century by racist western scholars and journalists to designate alien ‘non-white’ people as inferior or less civilized and as having not yet evolved from a primary state. From Kukubor, the following stereotyping, discrimination and prejudice can lead to tribal conflicts. From (Kukubor, 2006),

ADVOCATING SEGREGATION
This advocacy represents a belief that different ethnic groups should live apart, have absolute control over certain natural resources, can be exposed to special benefits. This advocacy began in the Ashanti Confederacy at pre-independence unsuccessfully agitated for a Federal state so as to appropriate the perceived wealth of the Ashanti. Extreme pride in one’s ethnic group and Obsequious patriotism is good but extreme pride in one’s ethnic group has proven to be the fascist of all regimes. CONSTANT REFERENCE TO A PERSON’S ETHNICITY

A mere mention of someone’s ethnic group on a first encounter could be
benign. But constant reference to the person’s ethnic group after a long period f knowing that person, no matter how innocent the references may appear, establishes unmistakably tribal patterns. BELITTLING OTHER GROUPS AND INDIFFERENCE TO THE FEELINGS OF OTHER ETHNIC GROUPS. Constant criticism and ridicule of the opinions of other ethnic groups, which is often done sarcastically without explicitly making mention of the ethnicity of persons. It is also typical to make fun of members of the ‘inferior’ ethnic group. EXCESSIVE HATE FOR A PARTICULAR ETHNIC GROUP

This is where one adopts an exaggerated reaction to any perceived misconduct from a person of the other ethnic group. In this situation, the punishment is out of proportion to the original wrong, whether real or perceived, and completely ignores the provocation that have led to the misconduct resulting in conflicts. NON- RECOGNITION OF THE ABILITIES AND ACHIEVEMENTS OF OTHER ETHNIC GROUPS. This attitude is so endemic in our political history. Some ethnic groups in this country have consistently denied the intelligence, cultural level, social status or other qualities of other ethnic groups in the face of overwhelming evidence. CONDESCENDING ATTITUDE OR BEHAVIOR.

People show condescending attitude towards other members of different ethnic groups. They exhibit this by attacking other members which cause them most offense. They even employ members of other groups they perceive as enemies and use them to attack members of that ethnic group. These ‘employees’ may openly condemn the culture of their ethnic group as backward and shower praises on the members of ‘superior’ ethnic group. Furthermore, these people have no insight into their own prejudice. They believe that their prejudice is based on objective grounds that cannot be compromised. By this strong fixation, an individual is capable of violence and other forms of crime towards members of what he views as the ‘inferior’ ethnic group. For Hima/tutsi elite being called superior and alien had “a feel good effect”. They were proud to be told that they had racial affinities, however distant, with the new colonial masters Overtime they developed a superiority complex, which they used to claim privileges and entitlements, including being appointed colonial chiefs. They then reinvented the pre-colonial past to live the impression that their superiority had existed since time immemorial. Like the new colonial masters, they grounded their rights and privileges on the right of conquering and subjugating the natives some four to five centuries before the advent of European conquest and occupation. On their part, the natives felt dejected and resentful.

They carried the burden of taxation and forced labor. Under colonialism, they served two sets of masters – the white and Hima/Tutsi elite masters. In due course, they sought to turn their supposed native status to their political advantage. In Rwanda and to some extent Ankole, the so-called natives began to make political demands on the ground that they were the natural majority. The extremists even went to the extent of demanding the return of the Tutsi/Hima aliens to their original homelands, where they came from, and wherever that might be (Doornbos, 1978:31). This led to the tensions of the 1940s and 1950s and the expulsion of the so-called Bayarwanda in the early 1980s. ( www.grandslacs.net/doc/3782, 1:15pm, 15th November 15, 2012) STATEGIES FOR DEALING WITH STEREOTYPING, DISCRIMINATION, PREJUDICE RELATED SITUATIONS The key to reversing stereotypes is to contradict them, in direct interactions between people, in the media, and through education. Between the individuals: once people get to know a person from “the other side,” they are often will determine that the other is not nearly as bad as they originally had assumed. Even when people learn that they share fear or sadness, they can begin to understand each other more. When they come to understand that the other is afraid of being hurt, or losing a loved one in war, just as they are, that brings people together. Depending on the context and other interactions, the image of the group as a whole may become more positive as well. In the media: the media also plays an important role in both perpetuating and in breaking down stereotypes. If they characterize particular groups of people in certain ways, their viewers (or readers) are likely to do the same. So if a movie or the motion picture industry in general, characterizes a group of people negatively, they are likely to be perpetuating negative stereotypes and making conflicts worse. If they emphasize the positive aspects of groups that contradict prevalent stereotypes, they can have a significant role in building mutual understanding.

In Education: Educational institutions and teaching materials also have the opportunity to affect stereotypes, and hence influence inter-group relations. Efforts to teach about different cultures and the
history of different racial and ethnic groups can help build inter-group understanding if it is done in an effective and sympathetic way. Changing stereotypes is largely the job of individuals. Each of us should examine the assumptions that we make about others and ask ourselves where those assumptions come from. (Source: (Why do we stereotype?, 2012) Training people to become more empathetic to members of other groups is one method that can reduce stereotyping, discrimination and prejudice. By imaging themselves in the same situation, people are able to think about how they would react and gain a greater understanding of other people’s actions. Other techniques that are used to reduce prejudice include: * Passing laws and regulations that require fair and equal treatment for all groups of people. * Gaining public support and awareness for stereotype, discrimination and prejudice social norms. * Making people aware of the inconsistencies in their own beliefs. * Increased contact with members of other social groups. (Cherry, 2013) Pettigrew (1981) and others proposed that stereotyping, discrimination and prejudice can be reduced by increasing contact between groups (the contact hypothesis), social learning, social re-categorization and weakening stereotypes. INCREASING CONTACTS BETWEEN GROUPS

Contact is effective under these limiting conditions:
* Groups are roughly equal in status (social, economic, or task relevant) * Contact involves cooperation and interdependence
* Contact is informal so groups get to know one another as individual * Persons must regard one another as typical of their respective groups SOCIAL LEARNING
* To the extent that prejudices and stereotypes are learned, we can work to avoid teaching them to children * Parents and teachers, made aware of their own prejudices, may work to modify their behavior to encourage lower levels of stereotyping, discrimination and prejudice in children. SOCIAL RE-CATEGORIZATION

The common in-group identity model (Gaertner, Dovidio et al., 1993) * When members of different social groups come to see themselves as members of a single social entity, their attitudes toward the former out-group members become more positive * Crucial factor is existence of situation in which groups work together cooperatively toward shared goals * Strong support for common in-group identity model from lab and field studies, but hard to implement in real life settings WEAKENING STEREOTYPES

Stereotypes can be reduced if persons can be made to engage in attribute-driven processing thinking about the unique characteristics of individuals. Factors that encourage attribute-driven processing: * Give person incentive to think accurately about others (Neuberg, 1989) * Inform persons that their own outcomes depend on another’s performance, or that it is important that they form an accurate impression of other * Successful outcomes for members of other groups (e.g., career success) can counter stereotypes because we often attribute positive characteristics to those who have good outcomes. (Reducing Stereotyping, Discrimination and Prejudice, 2012) CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

The conceptual framework consists of age, program of study, gender, religion, ethnicity and tribalism which we use as a guide through the study.

CHAPTER 3
DATA ANALYSIS
The chapter three entails the data collection and analyses based on the objectives. Questionnaires were given out to a sample of 100 students to find the extent of their knowledge on stereotyping, discrimination and prejudice in KNUST and this was their response. The data analyses system used is the SPSS. The bar chart is used to break the frequencies to make it more understandable and easy to interpret. 1. From the 100 respondents, 84% know about stereotyping, discrimination and prejudice in KNUST, 8% do not know about it and 8% also do not really know about it. stereotyping discrimination prejudice in KNUST|

| | Frequency| Percent| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| Valid| Yes| 84| 84.0| 84.0| 84.0|
| No| 8| 8.0| 8.0| 92.0|
| not really| 8| 8.0| 8.0| 100.0|
| Total| 100| 100.0| 100.0| |

2. Talking about people who speak up when someone is humiliating, insulting and ridiculing another person, 47% said they usually speak up, 15% said they always, 9% said they never and 29% said they ignore

humiliating insulting ridiculing another person|
| | Frequency| Percent| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| Valid| Usually| 47| 47.0| 47.0| 47.0|
| Always| 15| 15.0| 15.0| 62.0|
| Never| 9| 9.0| 9.0| 71.0|
| Ignore| 29| 29.0| 29.0| 100.0|
| Total| 100| 100.0| 100.0| |

3. 50% usually think about their comments and actions may affect others before they speak or act, 38% always, 6% never and 6% totally ignore how people will be affected by their comments and actions.

do you think your comments and actions affect others|
| | Frequency| Percent| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| Valid| Usually| 50| 50.0| 50.0| 50.0|
| Always| 38| 38.0| 38.0| 88.0|
| Never| 6| 6.0| 6.0| 94.0|
| Ignore| 6| 6.0| 6.0| 100.0|
| Total| 100| 100.0| 100.0| |

4. From our analysis, 53% usually find out the truth before repeating or believing rumors about other people, 23% claim they always do, 14% never find out the truth before repeating or believing rumors about other people and 10% just ignore.

truth before repeating or believing rumors|
| | Frequency| Percent| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| Valid| Usually| 53| 53.0| 53.0| 53.0|
| Always| 23| 23.0| 23.0| 76.0|
| Never| 14| 14.0| 14.0| 90.0|
| Ignore| 10| 10.0| 10.0| 100.0|
| Total| 100| 100.0| 100.0| |

5. 46% usually try to meet and understand people from different cultures and groups as individuals, 30% always, 13% never and 11% ignore. understanding people from different cultures|
| | Frequency| Percent| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| Valid| Usually| 46| 46.0| 46.0| 46.0|
| Always| 30| 30.0| 30.0| 76.0|
| Never| 13| 13.0| 13.0| 89.0|
| Ignore| 11| 11.0| 11.0| 100.0|
| Total| 100| 100.0| 100.0| |

6. 36% usually help new people in their group, including people of various cultures, ages and sizes to feel welcome and accepted, 52% always, 5% never and 7% ignore. help new people in your group cultures and groups as individuals| | | Frequency| Percent| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| Valid| Usually| 36| 36.0| 36.0| 36.0|

| Always| 52| 52.0| 52.0| 88.0|
| Never| 5| 5.0| 5.0| 93.0|
| Ignore| 7| 7.0| 7.0| 100.0|
| Total| 100| 100.0| 100.0| |

7. 64% have ever experienced discrimination, stereotype and prejudice, and 36% have never been discriminated, stereotyped and prejudiced

have you experienced stereotyping, discriminated or prejudiced | | | Frequency| Percent| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| Valid| Yes| 64| 64.0| 64.0| 64.0|
| No| 36| 36.0| 36.0| 100.0|
| Total| 100| 100.0| 100.0| |

8. 2% of the respondents have never been discriminated, stereotyped and
prejudiced before, 33% few times, 33% many times and 32% cannot tell the number of times.

|

how many times| | | Frequency| Percent| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| Valid| | 2| 2.0| 2.0| 2.0|
| Few| 33| 33.0| 33.0| 35.0|
| Many| 33| 33.0| 33.0| 68.0|
| can’t tell| 32| 32.0| 32.0| 100.0|
| Total| 100| 100.0| 100.0| |

9. 2% do not have idea about its relation, 26% their gender, 14% their age, 13% their color and 45% stated different relations.

was it in relation to your|
| | Frequency| Percent| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| Valid| | 2| 2.0| 2.0| 2.0|
| Gender| 26| 26.0| 26.0| 28.0|
| Age| 14| 14.0| 14.0| 42.0|
| Color| 13| 13.0| 13.0| 55.0|
| any other| 45| 45.0| 45.0| 100.0|
| Total| 100| 100.0| 100.0| |

10. 11% said, their gender prevented from getting access to class positions and work as interns, 8% related this to their ethnic background. With this, some had problems with roommates and course mates. 13% talked of their color which also prevented access to the use of certain facilities, 68% had to do with their program of study which is presumed to be better than the other.

what called for it|
| | Frequency| Percent| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| Valid| Gender| 11| 11.0| 11.0| 11.0|
| Ethnicity| 8| 8.0| 8.0| 19.0|
| Colour| 13| 13.0| 13.0| 32.0|
| program of study| 68| 68.0| 68.0| 100.0|
| Total| 100| 100.0| 100.0| |

11. 44% think people stereotype, discriminate and prejudice against others consciously, 29% unconsciously and 27% have no idea.

do people stereotype discriminate prejudice against others| | | Frequency| Percent| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| Valid| Consciously| 44| 44.0| 44.0| 44.0|
| Unconsciously| 29| 29.0| 29.0| 73.0|
| no idea| 27| 27.0| 27.0| 100.0|
| Total| 100| 100.0| 100.0| |

12. 39% of the respondents said people intentionally do it, 32% ignorantly and 29% have no idea.

If so why?|
| | Frequency| Percent| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| Valid| Intentional| 39| 39.0| 39.0| 39.0|
| Ignorantly| 32| 32.0| 32.0| 71.0|
| no idea| 29| 29.0| 29.0| 100.0|
| Total| 100| 100.0| 100.0| |

13. 20% had a preconceived perception about others which made them stereotype, discriminate or prejudice, 33% had preference for a particular group, 44% do it as a way of having fun, that is teasing and 3% did not answer.

how is it done|
| | Frequency| Percent| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| Valid| | 3| 3.0| 3.0| 3.0|
| preconceived perception about others| 20| 20.0| 20.0| 23.0| | preference for a particular group| 33| 33.0| 33.0| 56.0| | Teasing|
44| 44.0| 44.0| 100.0|
| Total| 100| 100.0| 100.0| |

14. 20% agreed that matured students are stereotyped, discriminated most on campus, 14% agree it is foreign students, 38% claim it is ethnic groups, 12% agree with religious affiliation, 11% agree with alma matter and 5% talk of hall of residence.

which group is been stereotyped discriminate prejudice the most on campus| | | Frequency| Percent| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| Valid| matured students| 20| 20.0| 20.0| 20.0|

| foreign students| 14| 14.0| 14.0| 34.0|
| ethnic group| 38| 38.0| 38.0| 72.0|
| religious affiliation| 12| 12.0| 12.0| 84.0|
| Alma matter| 11| 11.0| 11.0| 95.0|
| halls of residence| 5| 5.0| 5.0| 100.0|
| Total| 100| 100.0| 100.0| |

15. 31% of respondents claim stereotyping, discrimination and prejudice is high among students on campus, 11% say no, 45% are saying is fairly high and 13% had no idea. is stereotype discrimination prejudice very high among students on campus| | | Frequency| Percent| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| Valid| Yes| 31| 31.0| 31.0| 31.0|

| No| 11| 11.0| 11.0| 42.0|
| Fairly| 45| 45.0| 45.0| 87.0|
| no idea| 13| 13.0| 13.0| 100.0|
| Total| 100| 100.0| 100.0| |

16. From the analysis, 13% of the respondents agree people are aware of the effects of stereotyping, discrimination and prejudice, 32% agree people are awre but donot care about the effects, 38% agree people are not really aware of the effects and 17% claim they have no idea.

Are people aware of the effects of stereotyping, discrimination prejudice?| | | Frequency| Percent| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| Valid| yes, they are| 13| 13.0| 13.0| 13.0|
| yes, they are but do not care| 32| 32.0| 32.0| 45.0| | not really| 38| 38.0| 38.0| 83.0|
| no idea| 17| 17.0| 17.0| 100.0|
| Total| 100| 100.0| 100.0| |

17. 50% claim people just ignore the effects, 31% claim people are ignorant and 19% claim due to the selfish ambitions on the part of perpetrators. why that answer|
| | Frequency| Percent| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| Valid| Ignorance| 31| 31.0| 31.0| 31.0|
| they ignore the effect| 50| 50.0| 50.0| 81.0|
| selfish ambition| 19| 19.0| 19.0| 100.0|
| Total| 100| 100.0| 100.0| |

18. 56% claim people include or exclude others from interactions by the use of idioms or accents, 15% said no, 28% claim they had no idea about the question asked.

include or exclude others from interactions by the use of idioms or accents| | | Frequency| Percent| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| Valid| Yes| 56| 56.0| 56.0| 56.0|
| No| 15| 15.0| 15.0| 71.0|
| no idea| 28| 28.0| 28.0| 99.0|
| Total| 100| 100.0| 100.0| |

19. 57% agree stereotyping, discrimination and prejudice can affect the peaceful environment of KNUST, 22% disagree and 21% are not really sure of that stereotyping, discrimination and prejudice can affect the peaceful environment.

can stereotyping discrimination prejudice affect the environment of KNUST| | | Frequency| Percent| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| Valid|
Agree| 57| 57.0| 57.0| 57.0|
| Disagree| 22| 22.0| 22.0| 79.0|
| not really| 21| 21.0| 21.0| 100.0|
| Total| 100| 100.0| 100.0| |

20. 10% claim hatred among different groups prevent them from working together, 27% claim division and conflict, 17% talked of frustration and anger on the part of victims which in the long run might disrupt stability and 46% claim they do not have any idea on how stereotyping, discrimination and prejudice can affect the peaceful environment of KNUST.

In which way can this happen if agreed?|
| | Frequency| Percent| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| Valid| hatred among different groups| 10| 10.0| 10.0| 10.0| | division and conflict| 27| 27.0| 27.0| 37.0|
| frustration and anger| 17| 17.0| 17.0| 54.0|
| no idea| 46| 46.0| 46.0| 100.0|
| Total| 100| 100.0| 100.0| |

21. 43% claim inferiority and superiority feeling leads to tribal conflicts, 29% talked about the use of negative words, 26% talked about strong allegiance and 2% claim they do not have any idea.

how does stereotyping discrimination prejudice lead to tribal conflicts| | | Frequency| Percent| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| Valid| inferiority and superiority| 43| 43.0| 43.0| 43.0| | use of negative words| 29| 29.0| 29.0| 72.0|

| strong allegiance| 26| 26.0| 26.0| 98.0|
| no idea| 2| 2.0| 2.0| 100.0|
| Total| 100| 100.0| 100.0| |

22. 74% agree whiles 26% disagree that stereotyping, prejudice and discrimination affect the individual personality in developing himself

stereotyping prejudice discrimination affect the individual personality in developing himself| | | Frequency| Percent| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| Valid| Agree| 74| 74.0| 74.0| 74.0|

| Disagree| 26| 26.0| 26.0| 100.0|
| Total| 100| 100.0| 100.0| |

23. 42% of the respondents claim individuals suffer emotional trauma whiles 58% suffer from low self-esteem. why affected|
| | Frequency| Percent| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| Valid| emotional trauma| 42| 42.0| 42.0| 42.0|
| low self esteem| 58| 58.0| 58.0| 100.0|
| Total| 100| 100.0| 100.0| |

24. 61% of the respondents think something can be done to eliminate the situation and 36% think nothing can be done and 3% could not answer. do you think anything can be done to eliminate stereotyping discrimination and prejudice| | | Frequency| Percent| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| Valid| | 3| 3.0| 3.0| 3.0|

| Yes| 61| 61.0| 61.0| 64.0|
| No| 36| 36.0| 36.0| 100.0|
| Total| 100| 100.0| 100.0| |

25. 52% of the respondents said public education can solve the situation, 10% talked of penalty, 20% talked of equal treatment, 12% religious organization and 6% talked of public programs.

What measures do you suggest can be put in place to solve the above issue?| | | Frequency| Percent| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| Valid| public education| 52| 52.0| 52.0| 52.0|

| Penalty| 10| 10.0| 10.0| 62.0|
| equal treatment| 20| 20.0| 20.0| 82.0|
| religious organization| 12| 12.0| 12.0| 94.0|
| public programs| 6| 6.0| 6.0| 100.0|
| Total| 100| 100.0| 100.0| |

26. 24% there is social misfit in the society as a result of stereotyping, discrimination and prejudice, 20% talk of social vices, 29% claim people have committed suicide as a result of the situation and people lack self-control as a result of the situation. people been astray due to stereotyping discrimination prejudice| | | Frequency| Percent| Valid Percent| Cumulative Percent| Valid| social misfit| 24| 24.0| 24.0| 24.0|

| social vices| 20| 20.0| 20.0| 44.0|
| Suicide| 29| 29.0| 29.0| 73.0|
| lack of self-control| 27| 27.0| 27.0| 100.0|
| Total| 100| 100.0| 100.0| |

CHAPTER 4
Working on stereotyping, discrimination and prejudice has broadened our knowledge on the many challenges people face as a result of this issue. With our study objectives being; Identifying why people stereotype, discriminate and prejudice against others in the society. Examining the sources of stereotype, discriminate and prejudice in the society. Recognizing the role of stereotyping, discrimination and prejudice in tribal conflicts. Discovering strategies for dealing with stereotyping, discrimination and prejudice related situations. We have being able to conclude our findings based on the objectives. 4.1 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS

Prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination often go hand-in-hand, but it is also possible to have one without the others. Stereotyping, discrimination and prejudice have important attitudes for consequences and behaviors towards social groups. Stereotyping, discrimination and prejudice are learnt when one is a child and developed through the process of socialization. If stereotyping, discrimination and prejudice was an individual problem, any one affected could just go up straight to confront whoever caused it but this is the situation where majority of the individuals in the society at least once in their lives have experienced or witnessed this situation which has done nothing but affected their personal development.

For instance, from our survey conducted, majority of the respondents, mainly students have suffered stereotyping, discrimination and prejudice some of which pertains to their gender, ethnic background, program of study, age, hall of affiliation, etc. From our survey, we realized what people, who stereotype, discriminate and prejudice gain. These include ego-defense function, value-expressive, knowledge function and utilitarian function. The ego-defense function is when people protect people’s view of themselves on the social and personal level. Value-expressive has to do with people having their own values and behavioral consistencies in viewing their own cultural values, norms and practice first as the proper and civilized way of thinking and behaving. Knowledge function is people defending their knowledge base so that they view others not having such knowledge as ignorant and deficient. Utilitarian function is when people protect the majority in the group to make things easier. The negativity of stereotyping, discrimination and prejudice has gone up by leaps and bounds.

People are more apt to stereotype, discriminate and prejudice others because they feel superior to them, because they are afraid or it is the common thing to do in this day and age. This issue especially stereotyping is usually not accurate and used in a sense to hurt someone’s feelings. It is the lack of understanding and ignorance that we stereotype, discriminate and prejudice placing second hand labels on someone. Stereotyping, discrimination and prejudice affect our relations with others and the society at large. At the ethnic level, most people get angry when they are stereotyped, discriminated and prejudice against. This situation when not attended to leads to tribal conflicts in the long run. How? People build up their emotions towards the others and mostly retaliate through conflicts. Excessive hatred towards other ethnic groups, not recognizing the achievements of other ethnic groups, one group feeling superior over others and several others leads to tribal conflicts and prevents the development of the ethnic groups in general. 4.2 CONCLUSION

Stereotypes are oversimplified ideas about groups of people, discrimination refers to actions, and whiles prejudice refers to thoughts and feelings. Stereotyping (belief)

Prejudice (thoughts and feelings)

Discrimination (action)
Stereotyping, discrimination and prejudice is a very immense issue which should be given much attention. It can affect the individual in developing his or her personality and low self-esteems, it leads to build up feelings and hatred towards others, it prevents the employment of qualified people into certain positions, tribal conflicts and disagreements and on the larger scale, affects the development of KNUST. 4.3 RECOMMENDATION

There cannot be absolute measures to eliminate this situation. This is because we often unconsciously stereotype, discriminate and prejudice others without even realizing it but there are certain keys that can be put in place to curb this situation. On the part of us as individuals:

* We must be honest with ourselves, confront our biases and ethnocentric attitudes. * We should question the contents of our stereotypes and check against our actual interactions with out-group members. * We should be concerned about how our negative images concerning out-group members affect our biased attitudes and interactions. * We should use qualifying languages when describing members of out-group. * We should put ourselves in frequent inter-group contact situations to be comfortable with others. On the part of KNUST as a social institution, there should be; * Public education on the issue to bring people’s attention to it. * Penalties should be given out to people who are seen to be stereotyping, discrimination and prejudicing. * Equal treatment

* Religious organizations should talk about this issue and try to bring people from different backgrounds and cultures together. * Public programs to bring people together to know more about themselves and work together for the common good of the society.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Reducing Stereotyping, Discrimination and Prejudice. (Retrived 2012, November
12, 10:21am) http://www.usu.edu/psy3510/prejudice.html Why do people discriminate. (Retrived 2012, November 2, 10am). Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Discrimination Why do we stereotype? (2012, November 18). Livetext. http://uk.ask.com/beauty/Why-Do-We-Stereotype Cherry, K. (Retreived 2013, April 6). What Is Prejudice? About.com Guide. Coleman, J. W. (2002). Social Problems. Prentice Hall.

Colledge, O. (2013). Stereotyping, discrimination and prejudice. Introduction to Sociology. Retrived 2013 March, 06, 01:12pm) http://cnx.org/content/m42860/latest/?collection=col11407/latest Kukubor, K. B. (2006, November 14). Ethnicity, Discrimination and National Integration. Daily Graphic, p. 9. Lewin, K. (Retrived 2012, November 14, 10am). Stereotypes and Prejudice. SparkNotes http://www.sparknotes.com/. Lorne Tepperman, M. M. (1991). Macro/Micro, Brief Introduction To Sociology. Canada: Prentice Hall. Maddox, K. B. ( Retrived 2012, October 23). Rethinking Racial Stereotyping, Prejudice and Discrimination. Science Briefs. http://www.apa.org/science/about/psa/2006/04/maddox.aspx http://www.knust.edu.gh/pages/sections.php?siteid=knust&mid=14 DJL. (2008). Theories of prejudice. Learn Something New Today.


Essay Topics:


Sorry, but copying text is forbidden on this website. If you need this or any other sample, we can send it to you via email. Please, specify your valid email address

We can't stand spam as much as you do No, thanks. I prefer suffering on my own