All studies require that a research problem be identified and stated, and must be simple, concise, and in clear terms. Such problem will be the focus of a case study. IDENTIFY THE PROBLEM OF THE STUDY The General and specific objectives of the study must be categorically expressed. Such objectives will be the bases in conducting research activities. State the Objectives of the Study The research must identify his sources of data or information, how he is going to select his sources, what variables are to be included and excluded, and how these variables are to be selected or determined.
Determine the Sources of Data The researcher should identify the procedures of data gathering, the tools used in data gathering so that the researcher will be able to proceed smoothly with the research activities according to the time frame of the study. Determine the Procedures of Investigation After gathering the data, they are collated, arranged, and presented for easy analysis and interpretation. Collate, Analyze, and Interpret the Data 1.
The researcher may select convenient cases, which are not typical for a case study. 2. The researcher may find difficulty selecting the factors to be studied due to different environmental settings and sampling sizes. Limitations or Weaknesses of Case Study Method 3. Hypotheses cannot be tested due to small sampling size and limited number of variables.
4. Reliable and genuine data may not be obtained in some case studies due to limited primary sources. Experimental Methods of Research 1. To test the external validity of a laboratory ‘ndings. 2. To improve conditions under which people live and work. Several Reasons For Conducting Experiments in a Natural Setting: Experiment also Involves…….
Manipulation of One or More Variables which includes the: -Independent Variable -Dependent Variable – Internal Validity -Reliabililty -Sensitivity -External Validity Characteristics of a Good Experiment -if the cause and e+ect is interpretable, that is by manipulating the independent variable, it can cause a change in dependent variable. Internal Validity An experiment is reliable if the obtained di+erence is likely to be found again and if the experiment is to be repeated.
Reliability -an experiment is sensitive if such experiment is likely to detect the e+ect of an independent variable even when that e+ect is a small one. Sensitivity -if the ‘ndings can be generalized to individuals, settings,and conditions beyond the scope of the particular experiment.
External Validity – To provide empirical tests of hypotheses derived from theories. -experiments can be used to test the e+ectiveness of treatments and program. Purpose of Conducting Internship -Experimental Control -Random Assignment Two Conditions for an E$ective Experiment -Covariation -Time Order -Plausible Alternative Courses Three Conditions of Control: