Research Question 3 : Is there any significant difference between Buddhist and non-Buddhist in their use of nonviolent strategies to solve problems? Hypotheses Null Hypothesis (H₀) : There is no significant difference between Buddhist and non- Buddhist in their use of nonviolent strategies to solve problems Research Hypothesis (H₁) : There is a significant difference between Buddhist and non- Buddhist in their use of nonviolent strategies to solve problems

Technique used

The technique used when conducting the research question is t-Test of independence. Reasons for using the technique The reason why t-Test of independence is used because there are only two group of independent variable, which is Buddhist and non-Buddhist. Besides that, the independent variable is categorical, while the dependent variable is using interval scale.

Another reason for using t-Test of independence is because there are independent groups and the test compares two different groups with each other. Hence, one group cannot be a member of the other group. For this research question, the independent groups are Buddhist and non-Buddhist.

Critical Value

Degree of Freedom

= (N1 – 1) + (N2 – 1)

= (42 – 1) + (18 – 1)

= 41 + 17

= 58

Critical value (use significance level .05) = 2. 00

Calculation

| Buddhist, x| x²| Non-Buddhist, y| y²|

| 4.0| 16.00| 3.6| 12.96|

| 4.0| 16.00| 3.6| 12.96|

| 4.0| 16.00| 3.6| 12.96|

| 4.0| 16.00| 3.6| 12.96|

| 4.0| 16.00| 3.2| 10.24|

| 3.0| 9.00| 3.2| 10.24|

| 3.0| 9.00| 2.8| 7.84|

| 3.0| 9.00| 2.8| 7.84|

| 3.0| 9.00| 2.8| 7.84|

| 3.0| 9.00| 2.8| 7.84|

| 3.0| 9.00| 3.8| 14.44|

| 3.6| 12.96| 3.8| 14.44|

| 3.6| 12.96| 3.4| 11.56|

| 3.6| 12.96| 3.4| 11.56|

| 3.6| 12.96| 3.0| 9.00|

| 3.6| 12.96| 3.0| 9.00|

| 3.6| 12.96| 2.0| 4.00|

| 3.6| 12.96| 2.0| 4.00|

| 3.6| 12.96| | |

| 2.0| 4.00| | |

| 2.5| 6.25| | |

| 2.6| 6.76| | |

| 2.8| 7.84| | |

| 2.8| 7.84| | |

| 3.8| 14.44| | |

| 3.8| 14.44| | |

| 3.8| 14.44| | |

| 3.8| 14.44| | |

| 3.8| 14.44| | |

| 3.8| 14.44| | |

| 3.8| 14.44| | |

| 3.8| 14.44| | |

| 3.8| 14.44| | |

| 3.8| 14.44| | |

| 3.2| 10.24| | |

| 3.2| 10.24| | |

| 3.2| 10.24| | |

| 3.2| 10.24| | |

| 3.4| 11.56| | |

| 3.4| 11.56| | |

| 3.4| 11.56| | |

| 3.4| 11.56| | |

Total/ Sum| 143.9| 501.93| 56.4| 181.68|

Mean| 3.43| | 3.13| |

SD| 0.47| | 0.54| |

SD = n∑x2-∑x2nn- 1

SD for x = 42501.93-143.924242- 1 SD for y =18181.68-56.421818- 1

=21081.06-20707.211722 = 3270.24-3180.96306

=0.22 =0.29

= 0.47 = 0.54

σdiff =

= 0.4742+0.5418

= 0.04

= 0.2

t = (x̅1 – x̅2) – (M1 – M2)

σdiff

= (3.43 – 3.13) – (0)

0.2

t = 1.5

critical value > value of t, hence the null hypothesis is not rejected

Conclusion

The result of t-Test of independence showed that there is no significant difference between Buddhist ( M= 3.43, SD= 0.47) and non-Buddhist ( M= 3.13, SD=0.54) in their use of nonviolent strategies to solve problems, t(58) = 1.5, p > 0.05.

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