Bangladesh is a South Asian developing country located between 20.34 to 26.38 north latitude and 88.01 to 92.42 east longitudes, with an area of 147570 sq km. It has a population of about 128million.It has a border on the west, north and east with India and the southeast with Myanmar. The whole country consists of mainly low and flat land except for the hilly regions in the northeast and southeast. Physiographical the country can divided into hills, uplifted land blocks, and the majority alluvial plains. The Environment of Bangladesh is diverse and mix of traditional and modern methods of land use.
The primary sources of environmental resources in the country can be considered to be the existing natural and human resources. Bangladesh this is very low compared to the density of population, and their demands. The environmental resources of the country have been summarized into two major parts. That is:
1.Natural Physical resources
2.Natural Biotic resources
Now I describe the major environmental resources.
Natural Physical resources:
Natural physical resources are divided into many parts. All the parts the most important parts which reflect the quality of atmosphere of Bangladesh is given below:
The land of Bangladesh can be grouped into three major units’ hill soils, old alluvial soils and recent alluvial soils. The hill soils means the Himalayan ranges, Chittagong hills and hillocks of sylhet. Old alluvial soils are seen in the Madhupur and Barind. The soils of these have been formed on the old alluvium of the Pleistocene epoch. Recently old alluviums are found in the Gangas alluvium, Teesta silt and Brahmaputra alluvium.
Bangladesh is the largest delta in the world formed in the world by the Gangas, the Brahmaputra, and the Meghna river system. The delta is characterized by flat with the intricate system of rivers and tidal channels. Three major rivers have a huge catchment area of 1,554,000 sq km, spreading over five countries. There are 700 rivers, cannels and streams in Bangladesh. The main river system occupying the delta formed by the Gangas and the Brahmaputro which once they entry Bangladesh are known as the Padma and the Jamuna. The Jamuna joins the Padma near Aricha and flows up to chandpur where it joins The Meghna and the combined flow is the Meghna. The river flowing from the hills situated in the southeast of Bangladesh, namely Karnaphuli, Sangu, Matamuhuri and Knaaf flow into the Bay of Bengal. The important river in this region is the Karnaphuli which is also the longest ,274 km.
Climate of Bangladesh:
The climate of Bangladesh is characterized by high temperatures, excessive humidity. Though more than half the area of Bangladesh is situated north of the Tropics. The effect of the Himalayan mountain chain makes the climate more or less tropical. The climate is controlled primarily by summer and winter winds and partly by pre monsoon and post monsoon circulation
The country has an almost uniformly humid, warm and tropical climate. There are six seasons in Bangladesh namely Summer, Rain, Autumn, Fall, Winter, and spring.
The hot summer seasons from March to June is characterized by high temperatures in a week or more days are the highest rate of evaporation, and erratic but heavy rainfall.
From June to October is the hot and humid monsoon season with temperatures ranging and heavy rainfall and two-third of the mean annual rainfall.
The cooler and drier winter extends from November to March. When temperatures range from 8C to 15C and minimum temperatures can fall below 5C in the north. The temperatures fall throughout November to December, and in the last week of December.
Natural Biotic Resources:
Terrestrial and aquatic ecological resources play an important role in nation development. They serve as rich sources of food and fuel for the population. Forest provides a wide range of habitat of wildlife, and the wetland ecosystem provides habitat for aquatic species.
Forests are both environmentally and economically important natural resources in the terrestrial ecology. The total land under forest in Bangladesh is about 2.56 million, which includes officially classified and unclassified state lands. Although a significant part of existing forest area. In Bangladesh natural forest area is 31% and forest plantation is 13%. The forest of Bangladesh has been reducing at an accelerating rate. The major causes of deforestation are industrialization, rapid urbanization, and high population growth, both for settlement and shifting cultivation. In recent year and estimated number of 109.92 million in the urban area and plantation along roads highways and railways.
For the purpose of Ramsar convention wetland are defined as area of marsh, fen, peat land or water. Wetlands are invaluable components of the environment in Bangladesh. The total area of wetlands in the country has been estimated at seven to eight million hectors or 50% of the total land surface. The wetlands of Bangladesh are increasingly being recognized as habitat and escape cover for a large variety of wildlife. The nutrient products of wetlands in Bangladesh are carried by rivers and floodwater, and the systems downstream. The wetlands of Bangladesh are being drastically affected by the impact of the burgeoning human population. Approximately 2.1 million wetland have been lost of flood control, drainage and irrigation development. Wetlands are being continuously lost because of various recent developments such as shrimp culture, which reflect a lack of community awareness of wetland function.
Major Environmental Problems:
Bangladesh is confronted with host of environmental problems owing to both natural and human factors. The problems relate to activities in various sectors, and are of variable nature. The main environment issues that that is addressed through different policy. Now that is described briefly below.
characterized as containing harmful levels of sulfur dioxide or nitrogen oxide; acid rain is damaging and potentially deadly to the earth’s fragile ecosystems; acidity is measured using the pH scale where 7 is neutral, values greater than 7 are considered alkaline, and values below 5.6 are considered acid precipitation; note – a pH of 2.4 (the acidity of vinegar) has been measured in rainfall in Bangladesh.
The total weight or volume of living matter in a given area or volume.
The term used to describe the exchange of carbon (in various forms, e.g., as carbon dioxide) between the atmosphere, ocean, terrestrial biosphere, and geological deposits.
DDT (dichloride-diphenyl-tricolor-ethane) –
A colorless, odorless insecticide that has toxic effects on most animals; the use of DDT was banned in the US in 1972.
The destruction of vast areas of forest (e.g., unsustainable forestry
practices, agricultural and range land clearing, and the over exploitation of wood products for use as fuel) without planting new growth.
A species that is threatened with extinction either by direct hunting or habitat destruction.
A gas that “traps” infrared radiation in the lower atmosphere causing surface warming; water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydro fluorocarbons, and ozone are the primary greenhouse gases in the Earth’s atmosphere.
Industries which specialize in the science, technology, and processing of metals; these plants produce highly concentrated and toxic wastes which can contribute to pollution of ground water and air when not properly disposed.
Injurious, very harmful to living beings.
A layer of the atmosphere composed of ozone gas (O3) that resides approximately 25 miles above the Earth’s surface and absorbs solar ultraviolet radiation that can be harmful to living organisms.
The illegal killing of animals or fish, a great concern with respect to endangered or threatened species.
The process through which fresh (drinkable) water becomes salt (undrinkable) water; hence, desalination is the reverse process; also involves the accumulation of salts in topsoil caused by evaporation of excessive irrigation water, a process that can eventually render soil incapable of supporting crops.
Occurs when water channels and reservoirs become clotted with silt and mud, a side effect of deforestation and soil erosion.
A rotating cultivation technique in which trees are cut down and burned in order to clear land for temporary agriculture; the land is used until its productivity declines at which point a new plot is selected and the process repeats; this practice is sustainable while population levels are low and time is permitted for regrowth of natural vegetation; conversely, where these conditions do not exist, the practice can have disastrous consequences for the environment.
Soil erosion :
The removal of soil by the action of water or wind, compounded by poor agricultural practices, deforestation, overgrazing, and desertification.
A plant or animal species whose presence, abundance, and health reveal the general condition of its habitat.
Save the Environment:
Highlands Water Project
A series of dams constructed jointly by Lesotho and South Africa to redirect Lesotho’s abundant water supply into a rapidly growing area in South Africa; while it is the largest infrastructure project in southern Africa, it is also the most costly and controversial; objections to the project include claims that it forces people from their homes, submerges farmlands, and squanders resources
Inuit Circumpolar Conference (ICC):
Represents the 145,000 Intuits of Russia, Alaska, Canada, and Greenland in international environmental issues; a General Assembly convenes every three years to determine the focus of the ICC; the most current concerns are long-range transport of pollutants, sustainable development, and climate change.