The hypothesis developed for water quality of Grand River is to test whether urbanization affects the quality of water in Grand River. The hypothesis is based on the effects of urbanization on the Grand River water quality, with focus on Lansing section. 2. What concerns does this section of the Grand River face? How does increased urbanization impact water quality of freshwater systems like the Grand River? There is increased industrial and residential development in this part of the Grand River. Pollution is high, and discharges from industrial, urban and agricultural sources are high.
Urban development increases the concentration of phosphorus, chloride and total ammonium. Sedimentation is high and the level of water is low as a result of deposition of industrial junk into the river. The industries discharge water and other wasted directly into the river, increasing ammonia levels in the water (GRCA, 2010). 3. What is the difference between point source and non-point source pollution? Which is harder to control? Point source pollution refers to the source of pollution identified as the point where pollutants are discharged from and directed into a water body.
Non point source pollution refers to the delivery of pollutants indirectly into the environment such as water body as a result of changes in the environment. Point sources are much easier to control than non point sources of pollution. Examples of point sources include oil spills, factory pipes discharging wastes into the environment. Examples of non point sources include pollution from agricultural land (soil erosion, fertilizers, dump sites and pesticides) washed into water body through run off (GRCA, 2010). 4. List 4 signs of non-point source pollution into this section of the Grand River.
What type of pollution is it? i. e. , biological, nutrients, sediment, thermal Sediment pollution because of the drainage system used by the bridge and when cars drive across the bridge the sand/clay/silt/etc falls off and gets into the river. Biological pollution since the ducks and other various animals use the river and pollute it by releasing their waste into the water. Organic pollution by the park’s designated lawnmower mowing too close to the water’s edge and the shredded blades of grass get into the river. During winter when the salt that the city puts on the road to melt the ice gets pushed into the waterway.
Pollution is also caused by usage of pesticides in the Grand River drainage (GRCA, 2010). 5. State a hypothesis about what you expect to find from our water quality tests of the Grand River. Why do you think that’s what you will get? The Grand River water quality is generally poor, with high turbidity, low dissolved oxygen and high amounts of inorganic ions. The concentration of phosphorous is considerably high, and the pH is above neutral. The hypothesis is made based on the industrial and agricultural pollution. High levels of sediments and thus high turbidity is expected.
The amount of dissolved oxygen is expected to be low, with high concentration of phosphorus and nitrogen levels. 6. Perform water quality tests on the Grand River for the following parameters. DO: 0 ppm (Every group was all over the place and none of us got an average amount). Nitrogen: 1 ppm Phosphorus: 1 ppm pH: 8 Temperature: 28 degrees 7. What do your results indicate about the quality of the Grand River? The sediments and particulate matter that pollutes the Grand River increases turbidity, thus this increases temperature of the water. Dissolved oxygen is low.
This is as a result of increased temperatures, thus the water is unable to hold the amount of oxygen available. There is high demand for oxygen in the system. Low levels of oxygen in Grand River can also be as a result of industrial chemical discharges which increase reduction-oxidation reactions. Agricultural runoffs also contribute to low dissolved oxygen levels. Run offs from storm water, sedimentation, erosion and waste water treatment and discharge plants produces phosphates which pollute water. 8. What do you think needs to be done about the quality of the Grand River?
How would you achieve better quality water? The development of residential and industrial urban set up along Grand River affects water quality. The water issues must be integrated in economic issues such as planning and development of urban centers along the Grand River. The urban design should be water sensitive. This will minimize water use and help in managing risk of flooding and erosion of agricultural land, thus reducing water-borne pollutants such as pesticides. The estates must be designed with regard to water issues and that land use and planning of structures must be done properly.
The management of urban water should be done with the aim of minimizing water pollution through treatment of discharges, prevention of flooding and soil erosion, and incorporating water management into urban landscape to ensure quality of storm water and natural water systems of Grand River. There should be point and non point source pollution regulation programs aimed at restoring the quality of water. Programs aimed at reducing pollution load should be developed. References Grand River Conservation Authority (2010). Retrieved on July 15th 2010 from: http://www. grandriver. ca/