Question 1: In project management, what does the term “stakeholder” mean?
A stakeholder is anybody who can affect or is affected by an organization, strategy or project. They can be internal or external and they can be at senior or junior levels. Some definitions suggest that stakeholders are those who have the power to impact an organization or project in some way.
Question 2: In project management, what is meant by the term ‘scope’ or ‘project scope’?
Project scope is the part of project planning that involves determining and documenting a list of specific project goals, deliverables, tasks, costs and deadlines.
Question 3: In project management, what does the term ‘work breakdown structure’ mean?
A work breakdown structure (WBS) is a chart in which the critical work elements, called tasks, of a project are illustrated to portray their relationships to each other and to the project as a whole. The graphical nature of the WBS can help a project manager predict outcomes based on various scenarios, which can ensure that optimum decisions are made about whether or not to adopt suggested procedures or changes.
Question 4: In project management, what is meant by the term ‘duration’?
Duration of a project’s terminal element is the number of calendar periods it takes from the time the execution of element starts to the moment it is completed.
Question 5: In project management, what does the term ‘milestone’ mean?
Within the framework of project management, a milestone is an event that receives special attention. It is often put at the end of a stage to mark the completion of a work package or phase. Milestones can be put before the end of a phase so that corrective actions can be taken, if problems arise, and the deliverable can be completed on time.
Question 6: In project management, what is meant by the term ‘deliverable’?
Deliverable is a term used in project management to describe a tangible or intangible object produced as a result of the project that is intended to be delivered to a customer (either internal or external). A deliverable could be a report, a document, a server upgrade or any other building block of an overall project.
Question 7: In project management, name three ‘resources’
Generally the resources are distinguished in three main categories:
1. Labour (or Human Resources)
Question 8: On the Gantt chart axis below, complete: What is represented on the y axis? What is represented on the x axis?
A Gantt chart is constructed with a horizontal axis representing the total time span of the project, broken down into increments (for example, days, weeks, or months) and a vertical axis representing the tasks that make up the project (for example, if the project is outfitting your computer with new software, the major tasks involved might be: conduct research, choose software, install software). Horizontal bars of varying lengths represent the sequences, timing, and time span for each task. Using the same example, you would put “conduct research” at the top of the vertical axis and draw a bar on the graph that represents the amount of time you expect to spend on the research, and then enter the other tasks below the first one and representative bars at the points in time when you expect to undertake them.
The bar spans may overlap, as, for example, you may conduct research and choose software during the same time span. As the project progresses, secondary bars, arrowheads, or darkened bars may be added to indicate completed tasks, or the portions of tasks that have been completed. A vertical line is used to represent the report date.
Question 9: Explain the purpose of a Gantt chart
Gantt charts are helpful for planning and guiding projects. They are most appropriate for small- to medium-sized projects, but can be used for larger projects, such as capital projects on occasion. They are ideal for most planning projects that a department or college would be involved in.
Gantt charts are particularly helpful ways of dealing with scheduling tasks, understanding critical paths of a project, and planning of resources. Two concepts are particularly important in terms of the use of Gantt charts, the concept of sequential and parallel tasks.
Parallel tasks are those that can go on at the same time. Projects often take much longer than necessary because people assume that one thing follows another.
Question 10: What are the three phases of closing the project?
The first phase in any project management process is Project Initiation. The second phase is Project Planning. Together the first two phases represent the seven “Ps” of planning: Proper Prior Planning Prevents a Pretty Poor Program. But you are not preparing planning for planning’s sake, you need the deliverables. The final 3 phases of Project Management are Project Execution, Project Monitoring & Control, and Project Review & Close.
Question 11: When planning the communication process to ensure information is provided to those who need it, what four questions do you need to ask?
Who needs what information? And when?
What type of information will they need and in what detail?
What will your goal be when you communicate and how the information be provided to them?
Question 12: List four reasons a project could fail
Projects failing within an organization could have numerous and inter-related causes. Listed below are the 4 reasons that could contribute to project failure:
1. Lack of a Project Charter
2. Lack of User Involvement
3. Poorly Defined Requirements (Poor Scope Definition)
4. Poorly Defined or Unrealistic Time Scales