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Staffing Recuirtment Essay

Meaning:

Staffing basically involves matching jobs and individuals. This may require functions like manpower planning, recruitment, selection, training, development, performance appraisal, transfers, promotions etc.

Nature of Staffing:

Staffing has the following important features:

1. Staffing is a basic function of management.
2. It is concerned with human resources management in the organization. 3. Staffing function is performed continuously. Every manager has to guide and train employees and also evaluate their performance on a continuous basis. 4. The main purpose of this function is to make optimum utilization of human resources and also to provide proper satisfaction to employees. 5. Staffing is performed by all managers. In big concerns there is a separate personnel department to deal with this function, but even here this department advises line managers regarding different aspect of human resources. 6. Since staffing deals with human beings who have their own needs, emotions and aspirations this function is different from other managerial functions.

Process of Staffing

The purpose of staffing is to employ most suitable and competent persons as per the requirements of the organization. With this aim in view- the following staff process is followed: 1. Estimating Man power Need: The first thing in staffing process is to estimate manpower needs. These needs are influenced by the type and size of the organization. Total manpower requirements are properly assessed. It is also ascertained at what time different persons are needed. 2. Recruitment and Selection of Staff: Recruitment is the process of searching prospective employees and pursuading them to apply in the organization. Selection is the procedure of spotting most suitable candidates out of those who are interested to get employment in the enterprise. The purpose of recruitment and selection is to employing right man for the right job. There are internal as well as external sources of recruitment. 3. Training and Development: Training is meant to improve the skill and knowledge of employees. It is beneficial to both employer and employees. A well trained worker improves his efficiency and productivity.

Suitable training methods should be devised for different categories of employees. A formal training will avoid the risk of trial and error and will also minimize the cost and wastage involved in training. Development refers to the training of managerial staff. Development helps the growth of an individual in all respects through development managerial staff does not increase its capabilities to perform the present work but also enhances their ability to meet challenges in future. 4. Promotion and Transfer: Employees are promoted to higher rank on the basis of their merit and seniority .Staffing also involves transfer of persons form one job to another, from one place to another on the basis of their ability, competence and ability. 5. Remuneration: Remuneration is paid for the services of labour.

Employee motivation mainly depends upon the wage and salary structure prevalent in an organization. Employees should be paid fair remuneration so that they feel encouraged to contribute maximum in their efforts. The wages are normally paid on the basis of time spent or piece rate. 6. Performances Appraisal: After selecting and training an employer for a particular job, management would like to see how he performs high work. Performance appraisal is a systematic evaluation of employees contribution to the organization in performance of their .jobs. This evaluation is normally done by immediate superior in the organization and it is reviewed in turn by his superior. Not only the qualities but deficiencies are also evaluated to improve the performance of employees.

Need and Importance of Staffing:

1) Employing suitable persons: The employment of suitable persons is essential for every enterprise. The procedure of recruitment, tests for selection and methods of training are decided by the staffing team. A properly laid down scheme will ensure the employment of right persons. 2) Keep pace With New Development: New development are taking place everyday. A business will have to keep pace with new changes. This will be possible only if competent persons are employed who can adjust as per the new situation. 3) Manpower Development: Manpower planning will have to be done in advance. The future requirements of personnel will be estimated quite in advance. The new staff will be recruited people will be prepared for taking up higher responsibility jobs, all this will be possible only with a well planned staffing function.

4) Optimum Utilization of Manpower: the cost of recruiting, selecting and training the staff is very high. The remuneration is also paid at high rates. The manpower should be utilized to the maximum capacity .It will help in controlling cost also. 5) Ensuring Job Satisfaction: The staffing function will ensure job satisfaction to employees. The executive should be involved in decision-making process. They should also be suitably rewarded for their contribution to the organization a good staffing function will devise methods which will ensure job satisfaction to everyone.

Recruitment

Meaning:

Recruitment is the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization. When more persons apply for job then there will be a scope for recruiting better persons. The job-seekers too on the other hand, are in search of organizations offering them employment. Recruitment is a linkage activity bringing together those with jobs and those seeking jobs.

In the words of Yorder, “Recruitment is a process to discover the sources of manpower to meet the requirements of the staffing schedule and to employ effective measures for attracting that manpower in adequate numbers to facilitate effective selection of an efficient working force.” Recruitment is the process which promotes people to offer for selection in an organization. This involves locating sources of manpower to meet job requirements. In his words, “it is a process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating and encouraging them to apply for job in an organization. It is often termed positive in that it stimulates people to apply for jobs to increase the hiring ratio, i.e., the number of applicants for a job.”

Process of Recruitment:

Recruitment process passes thought the following stages:

1) Finding out the sources where suitable person will be recruited. Ex.: colleges 2) Developing the techniques to attract the desired candidates. The goodwill of an organization in the market may be one technique. The publicity about the company being a good employer may also help in stimulating candidates to apply. 3) Employing of techniques to attract candidates. There may be offers of attractive salaries, proper facilities for development, etc. 4) The next stage in this process is to stimulate as many candidates as possible and ask them to apply for jobs. In order to increase the selection ratio, there is a need to attract more candidates.

Factors Affecting Recruitment:

1. Size of the organization: The number of persons to be recruited will depend upon the size of the organization. A big enterprise needs more persons at regular intervals while a small undertaking employs sometimes only. A big business house will always be in touch with sources of supply and shall try to attract more and more persons for making a proper selection. It can afford to spend more amounts in locating prospective candidates. So the size of an enterprise will influence the process of recruitment. 2. Employment Conditions: The employment conditions in a country greatly influence recruitment process. In under-developed countries employment opportunities are limited and there is no dearth of prospective candidates. 3. Salary structure and working conditions:

The wages offered and working conditions prevailing in an enterprise greatly influence the supply of personnel. If higher wages are paid as compared to similar concerns, then the organization will not face any difficulty in making recruitments. A concern offering low wages will always face the problem of labour turnover. 4. Rate of Growth: The growth rate of an enterprise also influences recruitment process. An expanding concern will require regular employment of new employees. There will also be promotions of existing employees to higher jobs necessitating the filling up of those vacancies: A stagnant enterprise will recruit persons only when present incumbent vacates his position on retirement, etc.

Sources of Recruitment:

The finding out where suitable candidates are available and informing them about the openings in the organization is the most important aspect of recruitment process. The candidates may be available inside 1he organization as well outsider it. Recruitment sources can be described as: internal and external sources.

A. Internal Sources:

Internal source is one of the important sources of recruitment the employees already working in the organization may be more suitable for higher jobs than those recruited from outside. The present employees may help in the recruitment of new persons also internal sources are discussed as follows: 1. Transfers: Transfer involves shifting of persons from present jobs to other similar places. These don’t involve any change in rank, responsibility and prestige. The numbers of persons don’t increase with transfer but vacant posts may be attended to. 2. Promotions: Promotions refers to shifting of persons to positions carrying better prestige, higher responsibilities and more salaries. The higher positions falling vacant may be filled up from within the organization. A promotion doesn’t increase the number of persons in the organization.

A person going to get a higher position will vacate his present position. Promotion avenues motivate employees to improve their performance so that they get promotions to higher position. 3. Present Employees: The present employees of an enterprise may be informed about likely vacant position. The employees recommend their relations or persons intimately known to them. Management is relieved of botheration for looking out prospective candidates. The persons recommended by the employees will be suitable for the job because they know the needs & requirement of various positions. The existing employees take full responsibility for those recommended by them and try to ensure their proper behavior and performance.

This method of recruiting employees is suitable for lower position only. It may create nepotism and favoritism. The workers may be employees on the basis of their recommendations and not suitability.

Merits of Internal Sources:

1. Improves Morale: The internal sources of recruitment will boost morale of employees. They are assured of higher positions whenever vacancies arise. Existing employees are given preferences in promotions. Outsiders are employed only when suitable candidates are not available from within. 2. Proper Evaluation: The management is in a better position to evaluate the performance of existing employees before considering them for higher positions. An outside employed just on the basis of an interview may not prove suitable later on. The service records of existing employees will be a guide to study their suitability for ensuring vacancies.

3. Economical: The method of internal recruitment is economical also. The cost incurred in selecting a person is saved. Moreover, internal candidates do not required any training since they are well acquainted with various jobs in the organization. 4. Promotes Loyalty: Internal sources of recruitment promote loyalty among employees. They are preferred to consider at the time of filling up higher positions. They will feel a part and parcel of the organization and will always try to promote its interests.

Demerits of Internal Sources:

1) Limited Options: The recruitment of only internal candidates restricts the choice of management. The present employees may not be suitable to take up position of higher responsibility but there will be no option. A person will be selected only out of the available candidates. The outside candidates, even though they may be suitable, will not get a chance to show their talent.

Internal sources may dry up in the meantime and filling up of higher position will b-become a problem. 2) Lack of Originality: The present employees may not be able to bring new ideas. They will be accustomed to carry on things in the same old ways. New persons will bring fresh thinking and new methods may be tried.

B. External Sources:

Every enterprise has to use external sources for recruitment to higher positions when existing employees are not suitable. More person are needed when expansion are undertaken. External methods are discussed as follows.

1. Advertisement: Advertisement is the best method of recruiting persons for higher and experienced jobs. The advertisements are given in local or national press, trade or professional journals. The requirements of jobs are given in the advertisement. The prospective candidates evaluate themselves against the requirement of jobs before sending their applications. Management gets a wider range of candidates for selection. The flood of applications may create difficulties in the process.

2. Employment Exchanges: Employment Exchanges run by the government are also a good source of recruitment. Unemployed persons get themselves registered with these exchanges. The vacancies may be notified with the exchanges, whenever there is a need. The exchange supplies a list of candidates fulfilling required qualification. Exchanges are a suitable source of recruitment for filling unskilled, semi-skilled, skilled and operative posts. The job seekers and job- givers are brought into contact by the employment exchanges.

Private agencies also help in recruiting qualified and experienced person. These agencies remain in contact with employees and persons seeking change in jobs for higher posts.

3) Education Institutions: The jobs in trade and industry are becoming technical and complex. These jobs require certain amount of educational and technical qualifications. The employers maintain a close liaison with universities and technical institutions. The students are spotted during the course of their studies. Junior level, executives or managerial may be recruited in this way. 4) Unsolicited Applicants: Persons in search of employment may contact employers through telephone, by post or in person. Generally, employers with good reputation get unsolicited applications. If an opening is there or is likely to be there then these persons are considered for such jobs. Personnel department may maintain a record of unsolicited applications. When jobs suitable for these persons are available these persons are available these are considered for employment.

5) Casual Callers: Management may appoint persons who casually call on them for meeting short-term demands. This will avoid following a regular procedure of selection. These persons are appointed for short periods only. They need not be paid retrenchment or layoff allowance. This method of recruitment is economical because management does not incur a liability in pensions, insurance and fringe benefits. 6) Labour Contractors: It is quite common to engage contractors for the supply of labour. When workers are required for short period and are hired without going through the full procedure of selection etc.., contractors maintain regular contracts with works at their places and also bring them to the cities at their own expense. The persons hired under this system are generally unskilled workers.

7) Labour Unions: Labour unions are one of the sources of external recruitment. The job seekers are required to register with labour unions, & the labour unions are require to supply the names of persons for filing the vacancies. This method may encourage good co-operation between business firms and labour unions, active participation of persons in labour unions, the development of leadership qualities in workers, etc., 8) Consulting Agencies: Consulting agencies are one of the important sources of recruitment, especially for big companies. Consulting agencies are speaclised agencies which recruit people on behalf of their clients. They invite application for jobs specified by their clients from job seekers through advertisements, screen the application, interview the candidates and select the suitable candidate. They do these services for their clients for some Fees. 9) Educational Institutions: Universities, Colleges & Management institute are also one of the sources of recruitment of personnel, particularly for the posts of Scientists, Engineers & Management specialist. They have there own employment bureaus to help business organizations in recruiting the students for various jobs.

10) Waiting List: Waiting list maintained by a business firm is one of the sources of recruitment. Many business firms prepare waiting list of candidates who have already been interviewed and considered suitable for employment, but could not be appointed for lack of vacancies. When vacancies arise, the candidates in the waiting list are appointed. 11) Present Employees: Present Employees are also one of the sources of recruitment of personnel. The present employees of the concern are asked by the management to recommend suitable persons for employment in the concern. 12) Business Friends: Business Friends are one of the sources of recruitment. Business Friends are, some times, requested by a concern to recommend suitable persons for employment.

13) Re-employment of former employees how have been laid of or how have resigned for personal reasons: These people require less induction training, as they know the policies and the activities of the concern. 14) Banks and Other Financial Institutions: Banks and Other Financial Institutions are one of the sources of recruitment. These financial institutions are asked by there customers, namely, Business Houses, to recommend suitable personnel of employment. 15) Suppliers of Goods: Suppliers of goods are one of the important sources of recruitment. They are asked by their customers, namely business houses, to recommend suitable persons for employment. 16) Leasing: Leasing is one of the sources of recruitment, particularly for public sector undertakings. It is resorted to for securing managerial personnel at higher levels from civil services, accounts services and defense services, for specific periods.

Merits of External Sources:

1) Availability of Suitable Persons: Internal sources, sometimes, may not be able to supply suitable persons from within. External sources will give a wide choice for selection to the management. A larger number of applicants may be willing to join the organization. They will also be suitable as per the requirements of skill, training and education. 2) Brings New Ideas: The selection of persons from outside sources will have the benefit of new ideas. The persons having experience in other concerns will be able to suggest new things and methods. This will keep the organization in a competitive position. The present employees may not be able to infuse new thinking because their ways of thinking will remain the same. 3) Economical: This method of recruitment may prove economical because new employees may not require much training for the jobs.

Demerits of External Sources:

1) Demoralization: When new persons from outside join the organization then present employees feel demoralized because these positions should have gone to them. There will be a heart burning among old employees. Some employees may even leave the enterprise to find out better avenues in other concerns. 2) Lack of Co-operation: The old staff may not co-operate with the new employees because they feel that their right has been snatched away by them. This problem will be acute especially when persons for higher positions are recruited from outside.

3) Expensive: The process of recruiting from outside is very expensive. It starts with giving costly advertisements in the media and then arranging written tests and conducting interviews. In spite of all this if suitable persons are not available among the applicants then the whole process will have to be repeated. 4) Problem of Maladjustment: There may be a possibility that the new entrants have not been able to adjust in the new environment. They may not temperamentally adjust with the new persons. In such cases either the persons may leave themselves or management may have to replace them. These things have adverse effect on the working of the organization.

Difference between internal and external sources of recruitment

Bases of Difference
Internal Sources
External Sources
1
Meaning
Recruitment is form within the organization.
It is the recruitment from outside employees.
2
Bases
It is generally based on seniority cum merit.
It is strictly based on merit and qualifications.
3
Time involved
It is less time consuming.
It is a time consuming exercise.
4
Cost
It is a cheap source of recruitment.
It is an expensive source of recruitment. It involves time, expense and resources. 5
Reference
No reference of the employees is needed since all his records are available with the concern. Since enterprise does not know about person, references about previous work, conduct and character are needed. 6

Choice
There is a limited choice from among the present employees.
There is a wide choice from a large number of applicants.

Selection

Meaning:

Selection is a process of choosing duly qualified persons according to the requirement of the job. In recruitment an effort is to attract more and more applicants while in selection the effort is to eliminate unsuitable persons. The number of applicants will be much more than the positions vacant. It becomes important to scruitinise applications properly and cal for interview only those persons who are suitable for jobs. The selection of a right person will improve will quantity and quality of performance.

Definition:

Dabyoder “Selection is the process in which candidates for employment are divided in two classes, those who are to be offered employment and those who are not.”

Selection Process:

The selection procedure consists of a series of methods or steps or stages by which additional Information is secured about an applicant. At cash stage facts may come to light which may lead to the rejection of an applicant. Selection procedure is required to cross before he is finally selected. The following steps are generally followed in a selection process:

1) Receipt and scrutiny of applications.
2) Preliminary interview.
3) Blank application form.
4) Tests.
5) Interviews.
6) Checking references.
7) Preliminary and final selection.
8) Physical examination.
9) Placement and orientation.

1) Receipt and Scrutiny of Applications: The receipt and scruting of applications is the first step in the process of selection. A receptionist in the personnel department gives information about new opening to the visitors and receives their application.

The scrutiny of applications is essential to take out those applications which do not fulfill the requirements of posts. Some people send applications even when they do not possess the required experience and qualifications. These applicants, if called for preliminary interview, will waste their own time and that of the company. These applications should out rightly be rejected and information should be sent to the applicants in this regard. 2) Preliminary Interview: Preliminary interview is the first occasion when applicants come into contact with company officials.

This interview is to see whether applicants are suitable for the company both mentally and physically. The candidates are asked questions regarding his education qualifications, experience, age, hobbies, etc. Since rejection rate is high at preliminary interview should be courteous, kind, receptive and informal. He should give a good account of the company so that the applicant takes a good view of it and hopes to apply again whenever new opening comes. The applicants selected at preliminary interview are given blank application forms for supplying detailed information.

3) Blank Application Form: A blank application form is a widely accepted device for getting information from a prospective applicant. This is away of getting written information about candidate’s particulars in his own handwriting. It enables the personnel department to draw tentative inferences about the applicant’s suitability for employment. The information collected in the application form may also be circulated to various members of selection committee for enabling them to make a view about different applicants. The information collected in blank application relates to the following particulars; i. Bio-data: Bio-data includes name of the applicant, father’s name, date of birth, place of birth, permanent adders, height, weight, identification mark, marital status, physical disability, etc. ii.

Education qualifications: This part of educational qualifications relates to education acquired, institutions attended, percentage of marks, distinctions achieved, technical education acquired, subjects studied, areas of specialization. iii. Work experience: Application blank also enquires about previous experience, similar or other jobs held, nature of duties, salaries received, name of previous employers, reasons for leaving the present job. iv. Curricular activities: The information about participation in extracurricular activities like N.S.S., N.C.C., debates and declamations, sports” etc is also received in blank application form.

v. References: The applicant is also asked to give some references from where an enquiry may be made about his nature and work. The references are normally the persons with whom the applicant has worked but are hot related to him. vi. Salary demanded: The salary demanded by the applicant is also given in the application blank. An attempt is made to elicit maximum information in application blank. The information asked for should be relevant and specific. It should have relevance to the post he has applied for. The information collected should be brief and to the point. Questions requiring essay-type answer should be avoided..

TESTS

4) Tests: The use of tests for making selection is the most controversial step. Some persons are of the view that tests do not serve any purpose and do not improve selection process. On the other; “hand, some persons are of the view that tests give a valid judgment about the traits of applicants. Within these views, the use of tests is becoming important these should not be used just for the sake of use. The selection of appropriate tests may give good results and help in appointing suitable persons. The worth of test will be judged from its ability to reject unsuitable persons and help in selecting appropriate persons.

Characteristics of Good Test:

A good test has the following characteristics:

1) Reliability: a test should be reliable. Reliability of test means that it gives same results when applied to a person at different time. A test will not be reliable if it gives varied results when applied to the same person. For example, an intelligence test is applied to a person on Sunday and he gets a score of 100. The test is applied again to the same person on Wednesday and it given a score of 120. This test will not be called reliable because it has given varied results. 2) Objectivity: the test should be similarly applicable to different persons. The results of the test should not have a bias in favour of persons with particular education or technical background. It should be so constructed that two or more persons can score the responses to items, questions or tasks in the same way.

3) Consistency: a good test should give consistent results when carried out on different persons at different times. For example, a test shows x superior to y when it is applied on a particular day. If the test is repeated on the same persons on a different day it should again show the superiority of X over Y. If this is so the test will be consistent. 4) Standardization: a good test must be standardized. It may be administered under standard conditions to a group of persons who are representatives of the individual for whom it is intended. The methods and procedures for conducting and measuring results should also be standardized.

Type of test:
A variety of tests may be used to get results at different times. Psychologists have devised a number of tests which are frequently used. Some of the psychological tests are as follows: 1. Proficiency tests

2. Aptitude tests

A. Proficiency tests: These tests measure the skill or training which the applicant possesses at the time of testing. The claims of the applicants about his ability to perform a particular job are tested on actual work conditions in the factory .If the applicant is a candidate for the post of a foreman, he may be asked to explain the working of different machines. An applicant for the post of a sales executive may be asked to explain a procedure he will follow for promoting the sales of a product. These tests may be conducted in writing, orally or on the job. 1. Dexterity Tests: These tests are designed to find out how efficiently and swiftly an applicant uses his hands, fingers, eyes or other parts of body. These tests are useful where work requires the swift movement of parts of body.

B. Aptitude tests: Such tests measure the skill and ability which a person may develop later on. These measure the talent / ability of a candidate to learn new job or skill. The aptitude for learning and bent of mind is assessed in these tests. 1) Intelligence Test: These tests measure the overall intellectual activity or intelligence quotient (I.Q.) of the applicants. We can know about the capability of a person in dealing with new problems. Applicant’s word fluency, memory, reasoning are also determined with these tests.

Intelligence tests, generally, consist of a long list of questions, problem solving questions, reasoning, multiple-choice questions which are to be answered in a given time. The score of persons is judged against pre-decided scales. These tests are very useful for selecting persons for jobs requiring
executive responsibilities. 2) Personality Tests: Personality tests are designed to know about the non- intellectual aspect of the candidate. His mixing with people, temperament, likings and disliking, capacity to get co-operation from others, behaviour, confidence, initiative are studied with the help of these tests. Personality tests are essential for selecting persons for middle and higher level positions. Personality test also help to discover individual’s value system, his emotional reaction and maturity , his reaction under certain conditions, his adjustability to new situation and his characteristic mood.

These tests are widely used in industry because they provide a well-rounded personality of the applicant. 3) Movement Tests: These measure the speed and precision of movement in an applicant. The nature of job may require swift movements of the person working there. These tests are essential for person undertaking technical jobs. 4) Interest Tests: These tests are aimed to find out the type of work in which an applicant is interested. The liking and disliking of the persons are also judged. These tests are helpful in assigning different jobs to the persons. If a person is assigned the job of his liking he is likely to contribute more. He may also find out better ways of doing that job. The efficiency and job satisfaction will be more if the jobs are according to the tastes of the persons.

Advantages of tests:

Tests can prove useful if used properly and under appropriate conditions. Some of these advantages are as follows: 1) Proper Assessment: Test provide a basis for finding out the suitability of candidates for various jobs. The mental capability , aptitude, linking and interests of the candidates enable the selectors to find out whether a particular person is suitable for the job for which he is a candidate or not. 2) Objective Assessment: Tests provide more objective criteria than any other method. Subjectivity of every type is almost eliminated. 3) Uniform Basis: Tests provide a uniform basis for comparing the performance of applicants. Same tests are given to the candidates and their score will enable selectors to see their performance.

4) Selection of Better Persons: The aptitude, temperament and adjustability of candidates are determined with the help of tests. This enables their placement on those jobs where they will be most suitable. This will improve their efficiency and job satisfaction. 5) Labour Turnover Reduced: Proper selection of person will greatly reduce labour turnover. If suitable persons are not selected then they will leave the job sooner or later. Tests are helpful in finding out the suitability of person for the jobs. Interest tests will help in knowing the liking of applicants for different jobs. When a person gets a job according to his temperament and interest he will not leave it.

Disadvantages of Tests:

The tests suffer from the following disadvantages:

1) Unreliable: The inference drawn in the tests may not be correct in some cases. The skill and ability of a candidate may not be correct in some cases. The skill and ability of a candidate may not be properly judged with the help of tests. 2) Wrong Use: The test may not be properly used by the employees. It is also possible that persons applying these tests may be biased towards certain persons. This will falsify the results of tests. Tests may also give unreliable results if used by incompetent persons. 3) Fear of Exposure: Some persons may not submit to the tests for fear of exposure. They may be competent but may not like to be assessed though the tests. The enterprise may be deprived of the services of such personnel who are not willing to appear for the tests but otherwise may be suitable for the concern.

5. Interviews

Types of interviews:
Interviews may be of many types but some of these are discussed here:

1) Patterned or Structured Interview: this is the most common method of ‘interview is systematically planned in advance. The type of information to be asked, details to be enquired, information to be given, time allotted for, it are all planned properly. The interview is conducted in a pre-planned sequence. If the candidate makes some queries and the sequence is disturbed, the questions are started again from where these were left. These interviews are called standardized interviews. 2) Free Interview: this is unstructured interview and is not planned as to its format. The candidate is asked to express his views on general topics interview is not directed as to questions but the candidate expresses his views on his upbringing, interests, motivations, etc. the interviewers make judgement as to the strengths and weakness of the candidate. The interviewer should be an experienced person because it is very difficult to make judgement on such interviews.

3) Action Interview: This is semi-structured interview where questions are asked on the subjects studied by the candidate. He is also asked questions about his previous experience, aptitude, hobbies etc. the interview gives information about the nature of job the candidate will be expected to perform, salary offered, avenues for promotion etc. the replies of candidates are used to assess the potentiality of the candidate and his suitability for the job. 4) Group Interview: In group interview, a group of candidates is interviewed at a time. They are given some problems for discussion. The candidates express their views on the problems. Someone initiates the discussion and someone may wind it up. The interviews judge the views, initiative taken, way of expression of candidates. The candidates are judged by performance in the group discussion.

5) Panel or Board Interview: In his interview the candidates is interviewed by a panel of selectors. Different interviewers put questions on separate topics. For example, first interviewer may ask questions about the educational qualifications, second may put question on previous experience, third may ask general knowledge questions and so no. the candidate is selected or rejected on the basis of combined rating by the panel. 6) Stress Interview: The stress interview is to see how a candidate behaves in a difficult situation. The interviewer assumes a hostile attitude towards the candidate. The candidate may be asked questions in rapid succession, questions may be put on his answers, he may be criticized for some of his answers, his arguments may be rejected outrightly and so on. The purpose of such an interview is to see whether a candidate keeps his cool under stress situations, what is his reaction to hostile situations, etc., The interviewer must be an experienced person otherwise such interviews will not prove useful.

6.Checking References: The references may provide significant information about the candidate if they happened to be his former employers or with whom he might have been working earlier. The applicants are normally asked to name two or three persons who know about his experience, skill, ability, etc., but should not be related to him. 7.Preliminary and Final Selection: Upto this stage selection is handled by personnel department or staff executives. Since the persons employed are to work under line officers, the candidates are referred to them. Line officers will finally decide about the work to be assigned to them. If line officer is a production manager or foreman he may assess on the job performance of the candidates. If the candidate is not suitable for one job then he is tried at some other. If candidate’s performance is not upto the mark then he may be kept as apprentice for some time. Normally, a candidate is not rejected at this stage.

8.Physical Examination: The jobs may require certain physical standards as to height, eyesight, hearing etc. After the final selection, candidates are required to appear for medical examination. For civil services and military jobs, the candidates are appointed only when they clear medical test. Even for joining a government job, a medical fitness certificate from the Civil Surgeon or State Medical Board is essential. Private organisations too require a medical fitness certificate. 9.Placement and Orientation: Even after going through the rigorous procedure as explained in various steps, the selection procedure is not complete. The placement and orientation of the employee is also an important in this direction.

Difference between Recruitment and Selection:

Bases of Difference
Internal Sources
External Sources
1
Nature
It is positive in nature.
It is negative in nature.
2
Meaning
It involves the identification of sources of potential employees and encouraging them to apply. It is the selection from amongst the qualified applicants.
3
Process
Recruitment process starts before selection.
Selection starts after the process of recruitment.
4
Classification
The sources of recruitment are classified as internal and external. There is no such classification.
5
Object
Its main object is to create a large pool of candidates.
Its object is to select the most appropriate person after eliminating others. 6
Restriction
There is no restriction on the number of persons applying for the job Only restricted number of persons are selected.

Training and Development

Introduction

After suitable candidates are selected for various jobs, there is a need for the management to provide for training and development. Training and Development of the personnel is quite essential in these days when the process and techniques of the management have become highly complicated. Training and Development is essential for the improvement of the personnel and for making them fit into their jobs. The efficiency of an organization depends on the training and development of the personnel.

Meaning of Training and Development:

Training is the act of imparting information and special skills to trainee for the purpose of increasing his knowledge and skills for doing the particular job. Training is mainly job oriented. It is given to both new and old personnel throughout their stay in the organization.

On the other hand, development includes the process by which the personnel acquire not only skills and competence in their present jobs, but also capacities for future tasks or positions. Development includes all those activities and programmes, when recognize and controlled, have substantial influence in changing the capacity of the individual to perform is assignment better, and in so doing, are likely to increase potential for future higher assignments. In short, development refers to the programmes which contribute to the growth of the personnel to all respects.

Needs for, and importance and benefits of Training:

Training and Development of the personnel is quite essential for the successful working of any concern. B. Flippo has highlighted the importance of training in the following words “No organization as a choice of whether to train or not, the only choice is that of methods”.

Training offers several benefits. They are:

1. Training increases the knowledge and skill of the personnel, and there by helps them to increase the quantity and quality of the output. 2. Training helps the trainee to utilize and develop is full potential 3. When there is training, a person doesn’t take much time to achieve the required level of the performance. This gives him job satisfaction. 4. When training is imparted to personnel, they feel that they are taken care of by the management. This will increase moral of the personnel. 5. Training enables the personnel to make the best and the most economical use of the resources of the organization. This result in reduction in cost of production.

6. Trained personnel needs less supervision. That means, training contributes to increase in the span of the management. That is, when personnel are trained, a superior can supervise more subordinates. This result is reduced cost of supervision. 7. Training helps in building a second in line of competent officers or managers. As a result, there will be competent replacement for more responsible positions. 8. The availability of trained personnel ensures the long –term stability and flexibility of the organization. 9. Buy exposing the personnel to the latest concept, information and techniques, trainings makes the personnel better qualified, and thereby , increases there employability {i.e., their market value and earning power. 10. Training gives an employee personnel confidence in handling the job assigned to him.

Types of training programmes
Training programmes are four types .There are:
1. Induction or orientation training.
2. Job training
3. Promotional training
4. Refresher training
Training and Development Methods:
There are a number of training and developed methods for different types of personnel at different levels. The various training and development methods can be broadly classified into two categories. They are (1) On – the –job methods and (2) off-the-job methods.

On-the-job methods:
Refers to the methods which required the trainee to undergo training, while he is actually engaged in work.

There are many on-the-jobs methods of training. There are:
1. Apprenticeship training
2. Internship training
3. Training on specific job
4. Job rotation
5. Special project or task force on special assignment
6. Visible training (i.e., giving training to a employee by the specialists of the concern by duplicating as nearly place as possible the actual working conditions of the work)
7. Committees and junior boards

Off-the-job methods:
Off-the-job methods refers to methods which require the trainee to leave his work place for under going training programmes. The training programmes may be conduct by the enterprise itself or by the external agencies.

Off-the-job methods include:
1. Special courses and lectures
2. Conferences and Seminars
3. Case studies
4. Simulation-role playing
5. Sensitivity training

Under simulation role playing, instead of taking of the trainees to the field, the real situation of the work environment in an organization is presented to the trainees in the training session itself, and the trainee and made to act on samples of real business situation in order to practice in decision making. Role-playing is one of the common simulation method of training.

Sensitivity training or T-group training means the development of awareness and sensitivity to behavioural pattern of oneself and another. In other words, it is an experiences in inter-personnel relationship which result in a change in feeling an attitudes towards oneself and another. Under this method, the trainees are unable to see themselves as other see them, and develop an understanding and others views and behavior.

This method aims to influence an individual behaviour through group discussion. This method helps the participants to understand how groups actually work and gives them a chance to discuss how they are interpreted by others. It also aims to increasing tolerance for the points of individuals and his ability to understand others.

Performance Appraisal, Employee Appraisal, Employee Rating or Merit Rating

Introduction:

Performance appraisal means the systematic appraisal or evaluation of the performance of personnel by some qualified person. In other words, it is the systematic evaluation of the personality, performance and potential of each of the personnel by his superior or by some other qualified person. In short, it is the systematic evaluation of an Employee’s performance of his job in terms of its requirements

Importance and Advantages of Performance Appraisal

1. It helps the management to appraise the performance of the personnel, which of immense help to the running of the organization. 2. It is helpful to the management to rate all the personnel on the same method of measurement. 3. It forms a scientific basis for management decisions like increase in pay, transfer, promotion, etc., 4. It provides the personnel with information relating to their strong and week points. This provides and incentive to the personnel to improve there performance. 5. It serves as an guidance for the management to consider the types of training, which should be imparted to the personnel. 6. It helps the management in the proper placements of the personel.

7. It will help in preventing the grievances of the personnel, if it is conducted scientifically and systematically. 8. It provides job satisfaction to the personnel, and there by, improves the morale of the personnel. 9. The records of performance appraisal will be available permanently, and there will protect the management against subsequent charges of discrimination. 10. It helps management to ensure that the personnel or assigned jobs for which they are best suited. 11. It helps to evaluate the suitability of the selection policy and procedure of the organization 12. It helps to evaluate the suitability of the training and development methods adopted by the concern 13. It helps in improving the employer-employee relations.


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