What is STAFFING?
* Refers to the task of filling position in the organization with the most qualified people available.
* According to Theo Haimann:
“Staffing pertains to recruitment, selection, development and compensation of subordinates.”
* Nature of Staffing Function * Staffing is an important managerial function- Staffing function is the most important mangerial act along with planning, organizing, directing and controlling. The operations of these four functions depend upon the manpower which is available through staffing function. * Staffing is a pervasive activity- As staffing function is carried out by all mangers and in all types of concerns where business activities are carried out. * Staffing is a continuous activity- This is because staffing function continues throughout the life of an organization due to the transfers and promotions that take place.
* The basis of staffing function is efficient management of personnel – Human resources can be efficiently managed by a system or proper procedure, that is, recruitment, selection, placement, training and development, providing remuneration, etc. * Staffing helps in placing right men at the right job- It can be done effectively through proper recruitment procedures and then finally selecting the most suitable candidate as per the job requirements. * Staffing is performed by all managers- depending upon the nature of business, size of the company, qualifications and skills of managers,etc. In small companies, the top management generally performs this function. In medium and small scale enterprise, it is performed especially by the personnel department of that concern.
* The Staffing Process * Manpower requirements- The very first step in staffing is to plan the manpower inventory required by a concern in order to match them with the job requirements and demands. Therefore, it involves forecasting and determining the future manpower needs of the concern. * Recruitment- Once the requirements are notified, the concern invites and solicits applications according to the invitations made to the desirable candidates. * Selection- This is the screening step of staffing in which the solicited applications are screened out and suitable candidates are appointed as per the requirements. * Orientation and Placement- Once screening takes place, the appointed candidates are made familiar to the work units and work environment through the orientation programmes. placement takes place by putting right man on the right job.
* Training and Development- Training is a part of incentives given to the workers in order to develop and grow them within the concern. Training is generally given according to the nature of activities and scope of expansion in it. Along with it, the workers are developed by providing them extra benefits of indepth knowledge of their functional areas. Development also includes giving them key and important jobsas a test or examination in order to analyse their performances. * Remuneration- It is a kind of compensation provided monetarily to the employees for their work performances. This is given according to the nature of job- skilled or unskilled, physical or mental, etc. Remuneration forms an important monetary incentive for the employees.
* Performance Evaluation- In order to keep a track or record of the behaviour, attitudes as well as opinions of the workers towards their jobs. For this regular assessment is done to evaluate and supervise different work units in a concern. It is basically concerning to know the development cycle and growth patterns of the employeesin a concern. * Promotion and transfer- Promotion is said to be a non- monetary incentive in which the worker is shifted from a higher job demanding bigger responsibilities as well as shifting the workers
* Why is staffing critical to Organization’s performance?
“Staffing is the process, through which competent employees are selected, properly trained, effectively developed, suitably rewarded and their efforts harmoniously integrated towards achieving the objectives of the business.” “Staffing has been an important aspect in an organization’s performance.” * 1. Staffing enhances other managerial functions:
The Staffing function is very closely related to other managerial areas of the business. It influences the direction and control in the organization. The effectiveness of the other managerial functions depends on the effectiveness of the staffing function the organization performs.
* 2. Training and development:
Staffing in an organization provides training and development to the employees and enhances the employees to work effectively and this in return enhances the performance of the organization.
* 3. Effective coordination:
The Staffing function in the organization helps to build proper human relationships in the organization. An Effective human relation is the key to better communication and coordination of managerial efforts in an organization. This enhances the performance of the organization.
* 4. Effective recruitment and placement:
Staffing provides effective recruitment and placement which selects the right person for the right job which enhances the performance of the organization by having or selecting talented employees for the organization.
* 5. Building effective human resource:
Talented and experienced staff is the best asset of a business concern. The staffing function helps developing this asset for the organization. Staffing inculcates the corporate culture into the staff which in turn ensures smooth functioning of all the managerial aspects of the business.
* 6. Maximum utilization of work force:
Staffing helps in increasing the organization performance by utilizing the workforce to the maximum level. * 7. Long term effect of the organization:
The staffing decisions have long term effect on the efficiency of an organization. Qualified, efficient and well motivated staff is the best asset of the organization. The Staffing function in an organization assumes special significance in the context of globalization which demands high degree of efficiency in maintaining competitiveness.
* 8. Increase productivity and reduce operation costs:
Staffing in a company would increase productivity and reduce operation costs in terms of lower turnover rate and transition costs. Staffing in an organization could be able to minimize cost in order to maximize profit, because it could assist the company to stay more competitive within the industry.
* 9. Job satisfaction due to proper placement:
Staffing helps the employees in job satisfaction and when the employees are satisfied with the job then they won’t be any absenteeism, employee’s turnover etc… This in turn enhances the performance level of the organization. The importance of staffing within the management, is to make sure that you’re able to create a plan or organizational chart of whom is working where at what time, and the levels that report to the different people.
* System Approach to staffing
Number and kinds of managers required
The numbers of managers needed in an enterprise depends not only on its size but also on the complexity of an organization structure. The kinds of managers in an organization depends in the situation a person can control.
– the inventory of the managers refers to the determination of Available Managerial Resources Analysis of present and future needs for managers:
The need for managers is determined by the enterprise and organization plans and more specifically, by an analysis of number of managers required.
The External Environment: (External Sources)
These influences do affect staffing in many ways such a educational, sociocultural, legal-political and economic constraints or opportunities
The Internal Environment: (Internal Sources)
internal environment or sources determines the responsibility approach for staffing.
Responsibility Approach for Staffing:
Recruitment- attracting candidates to fill position
Selection and Placement- two approaches to filling position
Promotion- a move with an organization to a higher position
Appraisal and Career Strategy
– a major key to managing
Training and Development
– helps employees and managers to possess the ability which the organization requires.
What is ORGANIZING?
Organizing (also spelled organising) is the act of rearranging elements following one or more rules. * It is the function of management which follows planning. It is a function in which the synchronization and combination of human, physical and financial resources takes place.
According to Chester Barnard:
* “Organizing is a function by which the concern is able to define the role positions, the jobs related and the co- ordination between authority and responsibility. Hence, a manager always has to organize in order to get results.” Organizing- the process of creating an organization’s structure Organizational structure- the formal framework by which job tasks are divided, grouped and coordinated Organizational design- developing or changing an organization’s structure Work Specialization- The degree to which tasks in an organization are divided into separate jobs: also known as division of labor. Departmentalization- the basis by which jobs are grouped together. Functional Departmentalization- groups jobs by functions performed.
Product Departmentalization- Groups jobs by product line
Geographical Departmentalization- Groups jobs on the basis of territory or geography Process Departmentalization- Groups jobs on the basis of product or customer flow Customer Departmentalization- Groups jobs on the basis of common customers Cross-functional teams- Groups of Individuals who are experts in various specialties who work together Chain Command- the continuous line of authority that extends from upper organizational levels to the lowest levels and clarifies who reports to whom
Authority- The rights inherent in a managerial position to tell people what to do and to expect them to do Responsibility- The obligation to perform any assigned duties Unity of Command- the management principle that each person should report to only one manager Span of control- it determines the number of level and managers an organization has Centralization- the degree to which decision making is concentrated at a single point in the organization Decentralization- The degree to which lower-level employees provide input or actually make decisions. Formalization- the degree to which jobs within the organization are standardized and the extent to which employee behavior is guided by rules and procedures
* Steps in Organizing
1.Identification of activities – All the activities which have to be performed in a concern have to be identified first. For example, preparation of accounts, making sales, record keeping, quality control, inventory control, etc. All these activities have to be grouped and classified into units. 2.Departmentally organizing the activities – In this step, the manager tries to combine and group similar and related activities into units or departments. This organization of dividing the whole concern into independent units and departments is called departmentation. 3.Classifying the authority – Once the departments are made, the manager likes to classify the powers and its extent to the managers. This activity of giving a rank in order to the managerial positions is called hierarchy. The top management is into formulation of policies, the middle level management into departmental supervision and lower level management into supervision of foremen. The clarification of authority help in bringing efficiency in the running of a concern.
This helps in achieving efficiency in the running of a concern. This helps in avoiding wastage of time, money, effort, in avoidance of duplication or overlapping of efforts and this helps in bringing smoothness in a concern’s working. 4.Co-ordination between authority and responsibility – Relationships are established among various groups to enable smooth interaction toward the achievment of the organizational goal. Each individual is made aware of his authority and he/she knows whom they have to take orders from and to whom they are accountable and to whom they have to report. A clear organizational structure is drawn and all the employees are made aware of it.
* Principles of Organizing
The organizing process can be done efficiently if the managers have certain guidelines so that they can take decisions and can act. To organize in an effective manner, the following principles of organization can be used by a manager.
1.Principle of Specialization
According to the principle, the whole work of a concern should be divided amongst the subordinates on the basis of qualifications, abilities and skills. It is through division of work specialization can be achieved which results in effective organization.
2.Principle of Functional Definition
According to this principle, all the functions in a concern should be completely and clearly defined to the managers and subordinates. This can be done by clearly defining the duties, responsibilities, authority and relationships of people towards each other. Clarifications in authority- responsibility relationships helps in achieving co- ordination and thereby organization can take place effectively. For example, the primary functions of production, marketing and finance and the authority responsibility relationships in these departments shouldbe clearly defined to every person attached to that department. Clarification in the authority-responsibility relationship helps in efficient organization.
3.Principles of Span of Control/Supervision
According to this principle, span of control is a span of supervision which depicts the number of employees that can be handled and controlled effectively by a single manager. According to this principle, a manager should be able to handle what number of employees under him should be decided. This decision can be taken by choosing either froma wide or narrow span. There are two types of span of control:- a.Wide span of control- It is one in which a manager can supervise and control effectively a large group of persons at one time. The features of this span are:- a.Less overhead cost of supervision
b.Prompt response from the employees
f.Suitable for repetitive jobs
According to this span, one manager can effectively and efficiently handle a large number of subordinates at one time. b.Narrow span of control- According to this span, the work and authority is divided amongst many subordinates and a manager doesn’t supervises and control a very big group of people under him. The manager according to a narrow span supervises a selected number of employees at one time. The features are:- a.Work which requires tight control and supervision, for example, handicrafts, ivory work, etc. which requires craftsmanship, there narrow span is more helpful. b.Co-ordination is difficult to be achieved.
c.Communication gaps can come.
d.Messages can be distorted.
e.Specialization work can be achieved.
Factors influencing Span of Control
c.Managerial abilities- In the concerns where managers are capable, qualified and experienced, wide span of control is always helpful. d.Competence of subordinates- Where the subordinates are capable and competent and their understanding levels are proper, the subordinates tend to very frequently visit the superiors for solving their problems. In such cases, the manager can handle large number of employees. Hence wide span is suitable. e.Nature of work- If the work is of repetitive nature, wide span of supervision is more helpful. On the other hand, if work requires mental skill or craftsmanship, tight control and supervision is required in which narrow span is more helpful.
f.Delegation of authority- When the work is delegated to lower levels in an efficient and proper way, confusions are less and congeniality of the environment can be maintained. In such cases, wide span of control is suitable and the supervisors can manage and control large number of sub- ordinates at one time. g.Degree of decentralization- Decentralization is done in order to achieve specialization in which authority is shared by many people and managers at different levels. In such cases, a tall structure is helpful. There are certain concerns where decentralization is done in very effective way which results in direct and personal communication between superiors and sub- ordinates and there the superiors can manage large number of subordinates very easily. In such cases, wide span again helps.
4.Principle of Scalar Chain
Scalar chain is a chain of command or authority which flows from top to bottom. With a chain of authority available, wastages of resources are minimized, communication is affected, overlapping of work is avoided and easy organization takes place. A scalar chain of command facilitates work flow in an organization which helps in achievement of effective results. As the authority flows from top to bottom, it clarifies the authority positions to managers at all level and that facilitates effective organization.
5.Principle of Unity of Command
It implies one subordinate-one superior relationship. Every subordinate is answerable and accountable to one boss at one time. This helps in avoiding communication gaps and feedback and response is prompt. Unity of command also helps in effective combination of resources, that is, physical, financial resources which helps in easy co- ordination and, therefore, effective organization.
Authority Flows from Top to Bottom
Sales/ Media Manager
According to the above diagram, the Managing Director has got the highest level of authority. This authority is shared by the Marketing Manager who shares his authority with the Sales Manager. From this chain of hierarchy, the official chain of communication becomes clear which is helpful in achievement of results and which provides stability to a concern. This scalar chain of command always flow from top to bottom and it defines the authority positions of different managers at different levels.
Importance of Organizing Function
1.Specialization – Organizational structure is a network of relationships in which the work is divided into units and departments. This division of work is helping in bringing specialization in various activities of concern. 2.Well defined jobs – Organizational structure helps in putting right men on right job which can be done by selecting people for various departments according to their qualifications, skill and experience. This is helping in defining the jobs properly which clarifies the role of every person. 3.Clarifies authority – Organizational structure helps in clarifying the role positions to every manager (status quo). This can be done by clarifying the powers to every manager and the way he has to exercise those powers should be clarified so that misuse of powers do not take place. Well defined jobs and responsibilities attached helps in bringing efficiency into managers working. This helps in increasing productivity. 4.Co-ordination – Organization is a means of creating co- ordination among different departments of the enterprise.
It creates clear cut relationships among positions and ensure mutual co- operation among individuals. Harmony of work is brought by higher level managers exercising their authority over interconnected activities of lower level manager. Authority responsibility relationships can be fruitful only when there is a formal relationship between the two. For smooth running of an organization, the co- ordination between authority- responsibility is very important. There should be co- ordination between different relationships. Clarity should be made for having an ultimate responsibility attached to every authority. There is a saying, “Authority without responsibility leads to ineffective behaviour and responsibility without authority makes person ineffective.” Therefore, co- ordination of authority- responsibility is very important.
5.Effective administration – The organization structure is helpful in defining the jobs positions. The roles to be performed by different managers are clarified. Specialization is achieved through division of work. This all leads to efficient and effective administration. 6.Growth and diversification – A company’s growth is totally dependant on how efficiently and smoothly a concern works. Efficiency can be brought about by clarifying the role positions to the managers, co-ordination between authority and responsibility and concentrating on specialization. In addition to this, a company can diversify if its potential grow. This is possible only when the organization structure is well- defined. This is possible through a set of formal structure.
7.Sense of security – Organizational structure clarifies the job positions. The roles assigned to every manager is clear. Co- ordination is possible. Therefore, clarity of powers helps automatically in increasing mental satisfaction and thereby a sense of security in a concern. This is very important for job- satisfaction. 8.Scope for new changes – Where the roles and activities to be performed are clear and every person gets independence in his working, this provides enough space to a manager to develop his talents and flourish his knowledge. A manager gets ready for taking independent decisions which can be a road or path to adoption of new techniques of production. This scope for bringing new changes into the running of an enterprise is possible only through a set of organizational structure.
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Topic: Staffing and Organizing
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