Developed in 1960s and refined in the 1980s, the Burke-Litwin Causal Model of Organizational Performance and Change has several key features. Firstly, the model is based on twelve organizational constructs, or theories (Burke & Litwin, 1992). These are external environment, mission and strategy, leadership, organizational culture, structure, management practices, systems, work unit climate, task requirements and individual skills, motivation, individual needs and values, and individual and organizational performance.
Secondly, the model distinguishes culture and the climate of the environment. Thirdly, the model distinguishes between transformational and transactional dynamics of an organization. Fourthly, it specifies the nature and direction of influence of organizational variables. Finally, it is based on other models and empirical studies. This paper analyses the several variables with reference to hp inc. , the Information technology giant. These are • Tasks and Skills (Unique or core competencies) • Management practices (e. g. participative or centralized decision making)
• Systems and Policies (information systems, financial, marketing, production, human resources, etc. ) • Work unit climate • Motivation • Individual needs and goals ? Tasks and skills Being an IT company, the company needs the specialized personnel in the areas of computer engineering. It also needs to be well equipped with software engineers, marketing, human resource experts, accounting, etc. all these professionals have contributed in one way or another towards the company’s successful financial and corporate endeavors.
For example, during the infamous pretexting scandal, hp had personnel to handle its legal matters (with Ann Baskins, the head attorney). Although hp inc. is an IT company, it has hired someone to handle its legal issues, manifesting the different capacities needed by different companies to be able to run their business. Management Practices Under its Executive Vice President Shane Robison, hp inc. has developed various management practices to help achieve its goals. The company has invested heavily in research-based activities to help improve its products (Wikipedia, 2008).
These include hp labs founded in 1966, whose function is to function is to deliver new technologies and to create business opportunities that go beyond HP’s current strategies (hp, 2008). The management promotes the fostering of the development of the company’s global technical community, but also seeks ways to improve its strategy and corporate development efforts. These include mergers, acquisitions, intellectual property licensing amongst others. It also performs worldwide marketing through both internal and external communications and brand marketing amongst other marketing options.
Another of hps unique management practices is its HP IdeaLab program, which is a web forum on hp’s early-state innovations to encourage open feedback from consumers and the development community. All these management practices work together to ensure hp’s successful business venture. Systems and policies In its endeavour to meet its goals, hp promotes itself as supplying not just hardware and software, but also a full range of services to design, implement and support IT infrastructure.
To do this, it has in its capacity three main business segments. These include Imaging and Printing Group (IPG) – whose objective is to develop imaging and printing systems such as printer hardware, printing supplies and scanning devices, providing solutions across customer segments from individual consumers to small and medium businesses to large enterprises. Personal Systems Group (PSG) – the main objective is providing personal computers. They provide products such as Business PCs and accessories, Consumer PCs and accessories and Workstations.
Other systems include Technology Solutions Group (TSG), Enterprise Storage and Servers Group (ESS) and HP Software Work unit climate The founders of hp, William Hewlett and David Packard, developed a unique management style which was later coined as the HP Way. According to William Hewlett, the HP Way is “a core ideology which includes a deep respect for the individual, a dedication to affordable quality and reliability, a commitment to community responsibility, and a view that the company exists to make technical contributions for the advancement and welfare of humanity.
” This style has continued to motivate employees and consumers alike. Motivation HP has several staff and consumer motivation strategies. However, one of the most unique motivation programs include the ‘Hewlett-Packard’s Certified Professional (HP-CP),’ which is organized according to job roles. Within each role are certification levels, and the program confirms technical skills, sales competencies and knowledge that is required to not only propose and deploy but also provide service and support for hp products.
On the other hand, consumers have a 24-hour customer support service on any issue regarding the hp products. Individual needs and goals As mentioned earlier in this paper, hp inc identifies individual goals and needs whether an employee or a consumer. For example, one of the ideologies in the hp way, according to William Hewlett,’ is a deep respect for the individual. ’ Hp also understand different consumers have different individual needs, hence its policy to provide support for all its consumers in different parts of the globe.
References Burke, W. W. & Litwin, G. H. (1992). A causal model of organizational performance and change. Journal of Management, 18 (3), 523-545. HP (2008). History. Retrieved October 15th 2008 from http://www. hp. com/hpinfo/abouthp/histnfacts Valletta, V. S. Ed. (2005). Organizational Diagnostic Models: A Review & Synthesis. Leadersphere, Inc Wikipedia (2008). Hewlett-Packard. Retrieved October 15th from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Hewlett-Packard